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Table 1 In vivo lung fibrotic reaction of CNT administered via inhalation

From: Mechanisms of lung fibrosis induced by carbon nanotubes: towards an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP)

Inhalation studies
Duration CNT Dose Experimental model Fibrosis References
  Type Source Length (μm) Diameter (nm) Other   Species Strain Methods   
1-28d SWCNT CNI 0.1–1 0.8–1.2   5 mg/m3, 5 h/d, 4d mouse C57BL/6 SSCK, SRS + [81]
whole body
1y SWCNT U 1–3 65   5 mg/m3, 5 h/d, 4d mouse C57BL/6 SSCK + [83]
whole body
2-12d MWCNT-7 HCC / /   10 mg/m3, 5 h/d mouse C57BL/6 J MTS + [84]
whole body
1 to 336d MWCNT-7 HCC 4.3 /   5 mg/m3, 5 h/d, 12d mouse C57BL/6 J SRS + [27]
whole body
17 m MWCNT-7 HCC 1–6 40–90   5 mg/m3, 5 h/d, 5d/w mouse B6C3F1 H&E [85]
whole body
90d MWCNT-7 HCC 5.5–6.2 94–98   0.2–5 mg/m3, 5 h/d, 4d rat F344 MTS ++ [86]
whole body
1d-14w MWCNT HMS 0.3–50 30–50   1–30 mg/m3, 6 h/d mouse C57BL/6 MTS ++ [87]
nose inh
90d MWCNT N 0.1–10 5–15   0.1–2.5 mg/m3, rat Wistar H&E - [88]
6 h/d, 5d/w, 13w
nose inh
90d MWCNT N 0.1–10 5–15   0.1–2.5 mg/m3 rat SH MTS, LS, GS - [89]
6 h/d, 5d/w, 13w
nd inh
  1. nd: not determined. Duration: d: day; w: week; y: year. CNT type: AP: as prepared; COOH: carboxyl; NH2: amino; PD: purified. Source: A: Arkema (France); CNI: Carbon Nanotechnologies Inc. (Houston, TX); CT: Cheap Tubes (Brattlebore, VT); HCC: Hodogaya Chemical Company; HMS: Helix Materials Solution (Richardson, TX); MC: Mitsui & Company (Tokio, Japan); N: Nanocyl (Sambreville, Belgium); NI: NanoIntegris (Skokie, IL); NP: Nanotech Port (Chengdu, China); PIH: produced in-house; SA: Sigma-Aldrich (Lyon, France); SN: Shenzhen Nanoharbor (Shenzhen, China); SNP: Shenzhen Nanotech Port (Shenzhen, China); U: Unidym (Sunnyvale, CA). Other: AD: acetone/sonication dispersed; ALD: atomic layer deposition; BSA: bovine serum albumin; cc-PEI: carboxyl converted PEI; D: dispersed; DPPC: dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine; F: functionalized; ND: no dispersed; PABS: polyaminobenzene sulfonic acid group; PEG: polyethylene glycol; PEI: polyethyleneimine; PF108-C: cruder stock; PF108-HD: homogeneously dispersed; SD: survanta dispersed; swNH2: sidewall amine. Methods: GS: Gomori staining; H&E: Hematoxylin and eosin stain; hcIll: histopathology collagen type III; LS: Ladewig staining; MTS: Masson's trichrome staining; OH-p: hydroxyl proline, SRS: Sirius red staining; SSCK: Sircol Soluble Collagen; WBc: western blot collagen. Fibrosis: +p < 0.05, ++p < 0.01, +++p < 0.001 as reported in the respective paper; (#) p < 0.05 difference between particle responses as reported in the respective paper; ↑: increase of fibrosis suggested by authors but without statistical evidence