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Table 2 In vivo lung fibrotic reaction of CNT administered via intratracheal injection

From: Mechanisms of lung fibrosis induced by carbon nanotubes: towards an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP)

Intratracheal injection studies
Duration CNT Dose Experimental model Fibrosis References
  Type Source Length (μm) Diameter (nm) Other   Species Strain Methods   
7-56d short SWCNT SN 0.35–0.7 10–20   60 μg Mouse C57BL/6 J SSCK, MTS - [65]
long SWCNT 5–15 10–20 (3 mg/kg) +
14d SWCNT AMIDE / 0.7–1 4–6 F 10 mg/kg Mouse C57BL/6 MTS, hcI, hcIII, hα-SMA ++ [90]
SWCNT COOH 0.5–1.5 4–5 F ++
SWCNT PABS 0.5-1 1.1 F ++
SWCNT PEG 0.5–0.6 4.5 F ++
1-180d MWCNT SA 0.5–2 20–50 BSA disp 1–100 μg Rat Sprague–Dawley SSCK, MTS - [91]
(5–500 μg/kg)
1-91d MWCNT-7 MC 5 88   40–160 μg Rat F344 MTS [92]
(0.2–0.8 mg/kg)
1-30d short MWCNT NP 0.5–2 50   0.6 mg Rat SH SRS, hcIII - [15]
long MWCNT 20–50 50 (3 mg/kg) ++
60d MWCNT PIH 5.9 9.7   0.5–5 mg Rat Sprague–Dawley OH-p, MTS, ELISAc +++ [2]
MWCNTg 0.7 11.3 (2.5–25 mg/kg) ++
60d MWCNTg PIH 0.7 20–50 defects +++ 2 mg Rat Wistar OH-p, MTS ++ [93]
MWCNTg 600 defects ++ (10 mg/kg) +++
MWCNTg 2400 defects + +++
  1. nd: not determined. Duration: d: day; w: week; y: year. CNT type: AP: as prepared; COOH: carboxyl; NH2: amino; PD: purified. Source: A: Arkema (France); CNI: Carbon Nanotechnologies Inc. (Houston, TX); CT: Cheap Tubes (Brattlebore, VT); HCC: Hodogaya Chemical Company; HMS: Helix Materials Solution (Richardson, TX); MC: Mitsui & Company (Tokio, Japan); N: Nanocyl (Sambreville, Belgium); NI: NanoIntegris (Skokie, IL); NP: Nanotech Port (Chengdu, China); PIH: produced in-house; SA: Sigma-Aldrich (Lyon, France); SN: Shenzhen Nanoharbor (Shenzhen, China); SNP: Shenzhen Nanotech Port (Shenzhen, China); U: Unidym (Sunnyvale, CA). Other: AD: acetone/sonication dispersed; ALD: atomic layer deposition; BSA: bovine serum albumin; cc-PEI: carboxyl converted PEI; D: dispersed; DPPC: dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine; F: functionalized; ND: no dispersed; PABS: polyaminobenzene sulfonic acid group; PEG: polyethylene glycol; PEI: polyethyleneimine; PF108-C: cruder stock; PF108-HD: homogeneously dispersed; SD: survanta dispersed; swNH2: sidewall amine. Methods: GS: Gomori staining; H&E: Hematoxylin and eosin stain; hcIll: histopathology collagen type III; LS: Ladewig staining; MTS: Masson's trichrome staining; OH-p: hydroxyl proline, SRS: Sirius red staining; SSCK: Sircol Soluble Collagen; WBc: western blot collagen. Fibrosis: +p < 0.05, ++p < 0.01, +++p < 0.001 as reported in the respective paper; (#) p < 0.05 difference between particle responses as reported in the respective paper; ↑: increase of fibrosis suggested by authors but without statistical evidence