Skip to main content

Table 3 in vivo lung fibrotic reaction of CNT administered via pharyngeal aspiration

From: Mechanisms of lung fibrosis induced by carbon nanotubes: towards an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP)

Pharyngeal aspiration studies
Duration CNT Dose Experimental model Fibrosis References
  Type Source Length (μm) Diameter (nm) Other   Species Strain Methods   
2w SD SWCNT CNI 0.1–1 0.8–1.2 survanta acetone disp 10 μg mouse C57BL/6 J SSCK, WBc + [29]
AD SWCNT (0.5 mg/kg) +
1-28d SWCNT CNI 0.1–1 0.8–1.2   5–20 μg mouse C57BL/6 SSCK, SRS [81]
(0.25–1 mg/kg)
1-60d SWCNT CNI / 1–4   10–40 μg mouse C57BL/6 SRS, MTS + [38]
(0.5–2 mg/kg)
28d SWCNT CNI / 1–4   40 μg mouse C57BL/6 SSCK + [17]
(2 mg/kg) C57BL/6gp91phox−/− -
28d SWCNT CNI 0.7 1–4   40 μg mouse C57BL/6 SRS, SSCK + [94]
(2 mg/kg) B6.129X1-MPO + (#)
3w SWCNT CNI 0.5–2 0.4–1.2   40 μg mouse C57BL/6 SSCK, MTS + [95]
twice a week 3 weeks
7d SWCNT CNI 1–3 1–4   40–80 μg mouse C57BL/6 SSCK + [96]
(2–4 mg/kg)
28d SWCNT U 1–3 1–4   40 μg mouse C57BL/6 SRS, SSCK + [19]
(2 mg/kg)
1y SWCNT U 1–3 65   40 μg mouse C57BL/6 SSCK + [83]
(2 mg/kg)
21d SWCNT BSA-AP-Hipco NI 1000–5000 0.7–1.1 BSA-coated 2 mg/kg mouse C57BL/6 SSCK, MTS + [47]
SWCNT PF108-Hipco 500–1500 0.7–1.1 PF-108-coated -
14-56d SWCNT / 5–15 <2   80 μg/m mouse C57BL/6 OH-p, MTS + [64]
(4 mg/kg)
90d Short SWCNT CT 1 11   40 μg/m mouse C57BL/6 J SSCK, SRS + [31]
Long SWCNT 13 11 (2 mg/kg) + (#)
21d MWCNT CT 10–30 20–30   2 mg/kg mouse C57BL/6 SSCK, MTS + [54]
P47phox−/− C57BL/6 -
21d MWCNT AP CT 0.57   F      +  
MWCNT NH2 From AP 0.45   F      +  
MWCNT sw-NH2 From AP 0.58   F      +  
MWCNT PEI From AP 0.33 / F 2 mg/kg mouse C57BL/6 SSCK, MTS + (#) [45]
MWCNT cc-PEI From AP -   F      +  
MWCNT COOH From AP 0.38   F      -  
MWCNT PEG From AP 0.27        -  
21d AP MWCNT D CT    BSA + DPPC      +  
AP MWCNT ND CT    /      -  
PD MWCNT D From AP 10–30 20–30 BSA + DPPC 2 mg/kg mouse C57BL/6 MTS, SSCK + [36]
PD MWCNT ND From AP    /      -  
COOH MWCNT D From AP    BSA + DPPC      +  
COOH MWCNT ND From AP    /      -  
21d AP MWCNT CT 1.97   BSA-dispersed      +  
AP MWCNT CT 1.16   PF108-C      -  
AP MWCNT CT 0.15   PF108-HD      -  
PD MWCNT From AP 2.11   BSA-dispersed      +  
PD MWCNT From AP 1.52 20–30 PF108-C 2 mg/kg mouse C57BL/6 SSCK, MTS - [97]
PD MWCNT From AP 0.14   PF108-HD      -  
COOH MWCNT From AP 1.96   BSA-dispersed      +  
COOH MWCNT From AP 1.8   PF108-C      -  
COOH MWCNT From AP 0.15   PF108-HD      -  
1-14d MWCNT-7 MC 3.9 49   5–40 μg mouse C57BL/6 J MTS, SRS +++ [37]
(0.25–2 mg/kg)
1-56d MWCNT-7 MC 3.86 49   10–80 μg mouse C57BL/6 J SRS + [26]
(0.5–4 mg/kg)
1-56d MWCNT-7 MC 3.86 49   10–80 μg/m mouse C57BL/6 J SRS + [82]
(0.5–4 mg/kg)
1 to 56d MWCNT-7 HCC 4.3 /   80 μg/m mouse C57BL/6 J SRS + [27]
(4 mg/kg)
28d MWCNT HMS 0.5–40 10–30 Uncoated 4 mg/kg mouse C57BL/6 MTS +++ (#) [50]
ALD-coated +
60d MWCNT NM400 N 0.7–3 5–35       +++  
MWCNT NM402 A 0.7–4 6–20   12.5–100 μg/m mouse C57B6/6 OH-p, SRS +++ [23]
MWCNT NM400c N 0.1–0.5 18–35   (0.6–5 mg/kg) -
MWCNTg 2400 PIH 0.7 20–50       -  
60d MWCNT NM400 N 0.7–3 5–35       ++  
MWCNT long CT 10–30 11–59   100 μg/m mouse C57BL/6 OH-p, SRS ++ [34]
MWCNT short CT 0.5–2 10–47   (5 mg/kg) -
MWCNT thick CT 10–30 15–74       -  
  1. nd: not determined. Duration: d: day; w: week; y: year. CNT type: AP: as prepared; COOH: carboxyl; NH2: amino; PD: purified. Source: A: Arkema (France); CNI: Carbon Nanotechnologies Inc. (Houston, TX); CT: Cheap Tubes (Brattlebore, VT); HCC: Hodogaya Chemical Company; HMS: Helix Materials Solution (Richardson, TX); MC: Mitsui & Company (Tokio, Japan); N: Nanocyl (Sambreville, Belgium); NI: NanoIntegris (Skokie, IL); NP: Nanotech Port (Chengdu, China); PIH: produced in-house; SA: Sigma-Aldrich (Lyon, France); SN: Shenzhen Nanoharbor (Shenzhen, China); SNP: Shenzhen Nanotech Port (Shenzhen, China); U: Unidym (Sunnyvale, CA). Other: AD: acetone/sonication dispersed; ALD: atomic layer deposition; BSA: bovine serum albumin; cc-PEI: carboxyl converted PEI; D: dispersed; DPPC: dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine; F: functionalized; ND: no dispersed; PABS: polyaminobenzene sulfonic acid group; PEG: polyethylene glycol; PEI: polyethyleneimine; PF108-C: cruder stock; PF108-HD: homogeneously dispersed; SD: survanta dispersed; swNH2: sidewall amine. Methods: GS: Gomori staining; H&E: Hematoxylin and eosin stain; hcIll: histopathology collagen type III; LS: Ladewig staining; MTS: Masson's trichrome staining; OH-p: hydroxyl proline, SRS: Sirius red staining; SSCK: Sircol Soluble Collagen; WBc: western blot collagen. Fibrosis: +p < 0.05, ++p < 0.01, +++p < 0.001 as reported in the respective paper; (#) p < 0.05 difference between particle responses as reported in the respective paper; ↑: increase of fibrosis suggested by authors but without statistical evidence