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Table 4 In vitro CNT activities on fibroblast, macrophage or epithelial cell

From: Mechanisms of lung fibrosis induced by carbon nanotubes: towards an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP)

Cell CNT Concentrations Effects Mechanisms References
Type Name Type Source Length (μm) Diameter (nm) Other     
Fibroblast CRL1490 AP MWCNT D     BSA + DPPC   P   
AP MWCNT ND     /   /   
PD MWCNT D CT 10–30 20–30 BSA + DPPC 5 μg/ml P nd [30]
PD MWCNT ND / /
COOH MWCNT D     BSA + DPPC   /   
COOH MWCNT ND     /   /   
Fibroblast MLg, HFL-1, MWCNT NM400 N 0.7–3 5–35   7.5–30 μg/cm2 P   
BALB-3 T3, MWCNT NM402 A 0.7–4 6–20   (12–48 μg/ml) P nd [23]
PMF MWCNT NM400c N 0.1–0.5 18–35    /   
  MWCNTg 2400 PIH 0.7 20–50    /   
Fibroblast MLg MWCNT NM400 N 0.7–3 5–35   7.5–15 μg/cm2 P KR, End, Erk 1/2  
MWCNT long CT 10–30 11–59   (12–24 μg/ml) P Erk 1/2 [34]
MWCNT short CT 0.5–2 10–47    /   
MWCNT thick CT 10–30 15–74    /   
Fibroblast NIH-3 T3 MWCNT NP 20–50 50   15–60 μg/ml P, C, D Smad [24]
Fibroblast CRL1490 SWCNT CNI     0.02–0.24 μg/cm2 P, C, MMP-9 nd [22]
(0.03–0.4 μg/ml)
Fibroblast CRL1490 SD SWCNT CNI 0.1–1 0.8–1.2 SD 0.02 μg/cm2 C nd [29]
AD SWCNT AD (0.03 μg/ml) C
Fibroblast CRL1490 SWCNT CNI 0.1–1 0.8–1.2   5–25 μg/ml P, C, TGF-β, VEGF ROS, p38 [14]
Fibroblast NHLF Short SWCNT CT 1 11   0.02–0.2 μg/cm2 C, TGF-β ROS [31]
Long SWCNT   13 11   (0.03–0.4 μg/ml) C, TGF-β
Fibroblast WI38-VA13 MWCNT SA 2.5–20 6–13   1–20 μg/ml cyt, TGF-β, PDGF ROS [13]
Fibroblast L929 MWCNT SA   5.5   10–300 μg/ml cyt ROS [32]
Macrophage THP-1 SWCNT NI 1–5 0.8–1.2   50 μg/ml IL-1β IFM, ROS, End [54]
MWCNT CT 10–30 20–30 IL-1β
Macrophage THP-1 SWCNT BSA-AP-Hipco NI 1000–5000 0.7–1.1 BSA coated 50–100 μg/ml IL-1β IFM [47]
SWCNT BSA-PD-Hipco   500–1500 0.7–1.1 BSA coated   IL-1β IFM
SWCNT PF108-Hipco   500–1500 0.7-1.1 PF108 coated   /  
SWCNT BSA-AP-Arc   100–1000 1.2–2 BSA coated   IL-1β nd
SWCNT BSA-PD-Arc   100–1000 1.2–2 BSA coated   IL-1β nd
SWCNT PF108-Arc   100–1000 1.2–2 PF108 coated   /  
SWCNT BSA-PD-SG65   450–2000 0.7–1 BSA coated   IL-1β nd
SWCNT PF108-SG65   450-2000 0.7–1 PF108 coated   /  
Macrophage THP-1 MWCNT BNR   67   2–10 μg/ml IL-1β IFM, ROCK, End [46]
Macrophage THP-1 AP MWCNT D CT    BSA + DPPC 10–100 μg/ml IL-1β nd  
AP MWCNT ND CT    /     
PD MWCNT D From AP 10–30 20–30 BSA + DPPC     [36]
PD MWCNT ND From AP /     
COOH MWCNT D From AP    BSA + DPPC     
COOH MWCNT ND From AP    /     
Macrophage PM, PBMC short MWCNT BMS 1–10 5–20    /   
long tangled MWCNT CT 10–50 8–15   10–100 μg/ml /   [43]
long needle-like MWCNT MC 13 >50   IL-1β, IL-α IFM, ROS, Src, Syc,  
(Mitsui MWCNT-7)        P2X7 R  
Macrophage PAM raw MWCNT     /   IL-1β, IL-18 IFM  
THP-1 pure MWCNT     PD   IL-1β, IL-18 IFM  
  raw MWCNT COOH NAM    COOH F 25–100 μg/ml /   [42]
pure MWCNT COOH     COOH F - PD   /   
Macrophage PHM DWCNT PIH 0.1–100 1.2–3.2   25 μg/ml IL-1β, IL-18 IFM, End, K efflux [44]
Macrophage RAW 264.7 MWCNT SA 2.5–20 6–13   2–20 μg/ml IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1 NF-kB [13]
Macrophage THP-1, PBMC MWCNT HMS 0.5–40 10–30 Uncoated 10–100 μg/ml IL-1β, TNF-α, nd [50]
ALD-coated IL-6, OPN
IL-1β
Macrophage PAM Short MWCNT Nth 1.1 30   10 μg/ml /   [58]
Long MWCNT   20 28    IL-6, IL-8 ROS
Macrophage THP-1 MWCNT AP CT 0.57   F   IL-1β, TGF-β, PDGF   
MWCNT NH2 From AP 0.45   F   IL-1β, TGF-β, PDGF   
MWCNT sw-NH2 From AP 0.58   F   IL-1β, TGF-β, PDGF   
MWCNT PEI From AP 0.33   F 60 μg/ml IL-1β, TGF-β, PDGF for IL-1β: IFM, End [45]
MWCNT PEG From AP 0.27   F   IL-1β, TGF-β   
MWCNT cc-PEI From AP 0.38   F   /   
MWCNT COOH From AP      /   
Macrophage RAW 264.7 SWCNT CNI   1–4   100 μg/ml TGF-β nd [38]
Macrophage RAW 264.7 Short MWCNT NP 0.5–2 50   15 μg/ml /   [15]
Long MWCNT   20–50 50    TGF-β, TNF-α nd  
Macrophage NR8383 MWCNT HMS 0.3–50 10–30   10 μg/cm2 PDGF nd [51]
(16 μg/ml)
Epithelial cell A549 Short MWCNT SN 0.35–0.7 10–20   1–16 μg/cm2 /   [65]
Long MWCNT   5–15 10–20   (1.6–25.6 μg/ml) EMT TGF-β/Smad
Epithelial cell RLE-6TN MWCNT NP 20–50 50   30 μg/ml EMT TGF-β/Smad [24]
Epithelial cell HBE MWCNT HMS 0.5–40 10–30   1.5–24 μg/ml IL-1β, IL-18 IFM, ROS [16]
IL-8
Epithelial cell BEAS-2B MWCNT BNR   67   1–10 μg/ml IL-6, IL-8, MIF NF-kB, p38, [71]
ERK 1/2, HSP27
Epithelial cell TT1, ATII MWCNT 0.6 μm Nth 1.1 30    IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1   
MWCNT 3 μm   4.3 33   1–50 μg/ml IL-8, MCP-1 JNK, p38, ERK 1/2 [67]
MWCNT 20 μm   20 28    MCP-1   
Epithelial cell BEAS-2B SWCNT BSA-AP-Hipco NI 1000–5000 0.7–1.1 BSA coated   TGF-β   
SWCNT BSA-PD-Hipco   500–1500 0.7–1.1 BSA coated   TGF-β   
SWCNT PF108-Hipco   500–1500 0.7–1.1 PF108 coated   /   
SWCNT BSA-AP-Arc   100–1000 1.2–2 BSA coated 100 μg/ml TGF-β nd [47]
SWCNT BSA-PD-Arc   100–1000 1.2–2 BSA coated TGF-β
SWCNT PF108-Arc   100–1000 1.2–2 PF108 coated   TGF-β   
SWCNT BSA-PD-SG65   450–2000 0.7–1 BSA coated   TGF-β   
SWCNT PF108-SG65   450–2000 0.7–1 PF108 coated   /   
Epithelial cell BEAS-2B AP MWCNT D CT 10–30 20–30 BSA + DPPC 10–100 μg/ml TGF-β   [36]
AP MWCNT ND CT    /   /   
PD MWCNT D From AP    BSA + DPPC   TGF-β   
PD MWCNT ND From AP    /   / nd  
COOH MWCNT D From AP    BSA + DPPC   Few TGF-β  
COOH MWCNT ND From AP    /   Few TGF-β   
Epithelial cell BEAS-2B MWCNT SA 2.5–20 6–13   2–200 μg/ml TGF-β, PDGF ROS [13]
  1. nd: not determined. Cell name: A549: human lung adenocarcinoma alveolar epithelial cell line; ATII: primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cells; BALB-3 T3: mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line; BEAS-2B: human bronchial epithelial cell line; CRL1490: human lung fibroblast cell line; HBE: primary human bronchial epithelial cells; HFL-1: human lung fibroblast cell line; L929: mouse fibroblast cell line; MLg: mouse lung fibroblast cell line; NHLF: normal human lung fibroblast cell line; NIH-3 T3: mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line; NR8383: rat alveolar macrophage cell line; PAM: primary alveolar macrophages; PBMC: peripherial blood mononuclear cells; PHM: primary human monocytes; PMF: primary mouse fibroblasts; RAW 264.7: mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell line; RLE-6TN: rat alveolar type II epithelial cell line; THP-1: human leukemia monocytic cell line; TT1: transformed human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells; WI38-VA13: human normal lung fibroblast cell line immortalized with SV40. CNT type: AP: as prepared; COOH: carboxyl; NH2: amino; PD: purified. Source: A: Arkema (France); BMS: Bayer Material Science (Leverkusen, Germany); BNR: Bussan Nanotech Research (Ibaraki, Japan); CNI: Carbon Nanotechnologies Inc. (Houston, TX); CT: Cheap Tubes (Brattlebore, VT); HMS : Helix Materials Solution (Richardson, TX); MC: Mitsui & Company (Tokio, Japan); N: Nanocyl (Sambreville, Belgium); NAM: Nanostructured & Amorphous Materials Inc. (Houston, TX); NI: NanoIntegris (Skokie, IL); NP: Nanotech Port (Chengdu, China); Nth: Nanothinx (Rio Patras, Greece); PIH: produced in house; SA: Sigma-Aldrich (Lyon, France); SN: Shenzhen Nanoharbor (Shenzhen, China). Other: AD: acetone/sonication dispersed; BSA: bovine serum albumin; cc-PEI: carboxyl converted PEI; D: dispersed; DPPC: dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine; F: functionalized; ND: no dispersed; PEG: polyethylene glycol; PEI: polyethyleneimine; PF108: Pluronic F108; SD: survanta dispersed; swNH2: sidewall amine. Effects: C: collagen; cyt: cytotoxic; D: differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts; EMT: epithelial mesenchymal transition; IL: interleukin; MCP: monocyte chemoattractant protein; MIF: migration inhibitory factor; MMP-9: matrix metallopeptidase 9; OPN: osteopontin; P: proliferation; PDGF: platelet derived growth factor; TGF: transforming growth factor; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor. Mechanisms: End: endocytosis; ERK 1/2: extracellular signal-regulated kinase; HSP27: heat shock protein 27; IFM: inflammasome; JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase; K: potassium; KR: kinase receptor; NF-kB: nuclear factor-kappa B; ROCK: Rho-kinases; ROS: reactive oxygen species