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Fig. 2 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 2

From: Aerosol generation and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes exposed to cells cultured at the air-liquid interface

Fig. 2

The schematic shows the stages that are most critical for NM characterization and the techniques relevant to MWCNTs. Stage 1 involves characterization of the NM in its pristine form; stage 2 involves characterization of the administered dose; stage 3 is characterization of the deposited dose; stage 4 is characterization of the cellular dose; and stage 5 involves post-exposure evaluation of NM transformations during the course of the assay. Each stage looks at particular NM properties and requires specific techniques. The techniques mentioned in the schematic are Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), differential mobility analyzer (DMA), scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometers (SMPS), aerodynamic particle sizer (APS), micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), and organic carbon/ elemental carbon (OC/EC) mass spectroscopy

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