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Table 2 Characteristics of air-liquid interface exposure chambers for in vitro cell cultures

From: Aerosol generation and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes exposed to cells cultured at the air-liquid interface

  VITROCELL® 6/6, 12/12, OR 24/24 VITROCELL® Cloud 6, 12, OR 24 Cultex® RFS OR RFS COMPACT University of Bern NACIVT
What level of throughput can be achieved? VITROCELL® 6/6 VITROCELL® Cloud 6 Cultex® RFS NACIVT
• 6-well inserts (can use adaptors to adapt to 12 or 24-well-sized) • 6-well inserts • 6, 12, or 24-well inserts • 6-well inserts
  • compartments for exposing 6 cell culture inserts • compartments for exposing 6 cell culture inserts: 6 inserts at one exposure; no clean air control • compartments for exposing 3 cell culture inserts - all exposed to the same substance • compartments for exposing 24 cell culture inserts – allexposed to the same substance.
• allows for separate clean air exposure in one module: • 1 well can be used for the (optional) microbalance. • would have to purchase 2 modules for clean air control • would have to purchase 2 modules for clean air control
o 3 replicates clean air control    
o 3 replicates of one dose (or 2 replicates plus optional 1 well for microbalance)    
  VITROCELL® 12/12 VITROCELL® Cloud 12 Cultex® RFS Compact  
• 12-well inserts (can use adaptors to adapt to 24-well-sized) • 12-well inserts • 12 or 24-well inserts
  • compartments for exposing 12 cell culture inserts • compartments for exposing 12 cell culture inserts • compartments for exposing 6 cell culture inserts  
  • allows for separate clean air exposure in one module: • allows for separate clean air exposure in one module: • allows for separate clean air exposure in one module  
o 3 replicates clean air control o 3 replicates for clean air control
o 3 dose dilutions with 3 replicates per dilution (or 2 replicates plus optional 1 well for microbalance) o 9 inserts at one exposure (1 well can be used for the optional microbalance)
  VITROCELL® 24/24 VITROCELL® Cloud 24   
• 24-well inserts • 24-well inserts
• compartments for exposing 24 cell culture inserts • compartments for exposing 24 cell culture inserts; 24 inserts at one exposure (1 well can be used for the optional microbalance)
• allows for separate clean air exposure in one module: • would have to purchase 2 modules for clean air control
o 4 replicates clean air control  
o 5 dose dilutions with 4 replicates per dilution (or 3 replicates plus optional 1 well for microbalance)
Commercially available? Yes Yes Yes No
Deposited-dose determination • The microbalance is capable of measuring the deposition in the module at a resolution of 10 ng/cm2. 1 well can be used for the microbalance (optional). Gravimetric methods, using the precision balance. One of the wells is designed to carry a transmission electron microscope (TEM) grid to monitor exposure. Also has an electrometer.
• For the 6/6 and 12/12, a built-in microbalance option is available. A microbalance sensor would occupy one compartment; therefore, the module should have at least 4 compartments in order to allow 3 replicates for exposure.
• For the 24/24, the purchase of a separate, standalone 12/1 CF module to use a microbalance would be needed.
Exposure Method The VITROCELL® 6/6 is compatible with electrostatic deposition. Not compatible with electrostatic deposition, but due to high deposition efficiency of NMs in the Cloud, electrostatic deposition is not needed (Cloud is equipped with a nebulizer that generates liquid aerosols). Compatible with electrostatic deposition (both RFS and RFS compact). Compatible with electrostatic deposition.
The 12/12 and 24/24 are not, but in those cases, the VITROCELL® 6/6 modules can be used with adaptors for 12 or 24-well inserts.
Exposure time duration Maximum 6 h possible Approximately 3–4 min Up to 1 h reported Up to 2 h reported
Ability to utilize multiple aerosol generating techniques? May be used with a wide range of aerosol generators. Compatible only with the aerosol generator, which is part of the delivery (vibrating mesh type for liquid aerosols). May be used with a wide range of aerosol generators; One option is the Cultex® dust generator, which is a Mitchell or screw mill type. May be used with a wide range of aerosol generators; Can be placed close to the workplace or aside a busy street.