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Table 4 Linear mixed model results of the time course changes (i.e., evolution over time) of oxidative stress biomarkers in EBC, plasma and urine, presented as percentages, with 95 % CI and p-value

From: Increase in oxidative stress levels following welding fume inhalation: a controlled human exposure study

   EBC PLASMA CREATININE CORRECTED URINE
  Time Exponentiated coefficients with 95 % CI (p-value) Exponentiated coefficients with 95 % CI (p-value) Exponentiated coefficients with 95 % CI (p-value)
Log-Total Reducing Capacity [a.u] T1
T2 −1 % [−18 %;19 %], (0.89) −5 % [−13 %;4 %], (0.31)b −4 % [−24 %;22 %], (0.75)
T3 5 % [−13 %;26 %], (0.63) 2 % [−7 %;12 %], (0.63)b 12 % [−12 %;42 %], (0.36)
T4 3 % [11 %;61 %], (0.77) 0.1 %[−9 %;10 %], (0.99)b 24 % [−2 %;58 %], (0.08)
Log- H2O2 [μM] T1
T2 12 % [−38 %;103 %], (0.72) 5 % [−12 %;25 %], (0.57) 17 % [−38 %;119 %], (0.62)
T3 −29 % [−60 %;29 %], (0.26) 14 % [−4 %;36 %], (0.14) 23 % [−34 %;131 %], (0.51)
T4 −14 % [−52 %;56 %], (0.62) 24 % [4 %;48 %], (0.014)a 91 % [−2 %;258 %], (0.043)a
Log-MDA [nM] T1
T2 −19 % [−58 %;57 %], (0.53) −4 % [−25 %;23 %], (0.74) 2 % [−25 %;40 %], (0.89)
T3 −0.8 % [−49 %;92 %], (0.98) −0.4 % [−22 %;27 %], (0.97) 8 % [−21 %;48 %], (0.63)
T4 −39 % [−68 %;19 %], (0.15) −6 % [−26 %;21 %], (0.65) 5 % [−23 %;44 %], (0.76)
Log-8-OHdG [μg/l] T1
T2 4 % [−9 %;20 %], (0.52) 12 % [−21 %;57 %], (0.54)
T3 6 % [−8 %;21 %], (0.41) 19 % [−16 %;68 %], (0.33)
T4 14 % [0 %;31 %], (0.049)a 45 % [3 %;105 %], (0.033)a
  1. aIndicates significant (p < 0.05) increase at the time point as compared to T1 bTotal reducing capacity concentration was measured in whole blood and not plasma