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Table 1 Effects of particle size on the ability of cultured phagocytes to process and release IL-1β

From: The complex cascade of cellular events governing inflammasome activation and IL-1β processing in response to inhaled particles

Size
Chemical composition (doses) Primary size (nm) Hydrodynamic diameter (nm) IL-1β release Identified mechanisms Cell type Reference
Amorphous silica (100–1000 μg/ml) 20 295 ++++ Lysosomal acidification and cathepsin B activity Macrophages [97]
67 91 +++ Lysosomal acidification and cathepsin B activity   
369 531 ++ N.a.   
500 - 10000 342 - 5560 + Lysosomal acidification and cathepsin B activity   
30 / ++++ Actin-mediated endocytosis and lysosomal acidification Macrophages [82]
100 / +++ Actin-mediated endocytosis and lysosomal acidification   
300 / +++ Actin-mediated endocytosis and lysosomal acidification   
1000 / +++ Actin-mediated endocytosis and lysosomal acidification   
3000 / ++ Actin-mediated endocytosis and lysosomal acidification   
10000 / +/− Lysosomal acidification   
Carbon black (62–687 μg/ml) 53,7 235 ++ N.a. Monocytes [165]
525 636 + N.a.   
14 / ++ N.a. Monocytes [166]
260 / - N.a.   
Silver (0.15 – 0.9 μg/ml) 5 / ++ Potassium efflux and oxydative stress Monocytes [116]
28 / + Potassium efflux and oxydative stress   
100 / - N.a.   
Polystyrene (120 – 3000 μg/ml) 1000 / ++++ N.a. Dendritic cells [36]
430 / +++ Actin-mediated endocytosis, lysosomal acidification cathepsin B activity and potassium efflux   
10 000 / ++ N.a.   
32 000 / + N.a.   
  1. The smallest and fiber- or needle-like particles are particularly active to induce IL-1β release. Surface area properties and reactivity also govern inflammasome/IL-1β activation. Physical or chemical treatments aiming to reduce surface reactivity can control inflammogenicity of particles
  2. N.a. not assessed, N.r. not relevant