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Table 2 Effects of particle surface on the ability of cultured phagocytes to process and release IL-1β

From: The complex cascade of cellular events governing inflammasome activation and IL-1β processing in response to inhaled particles

Surface
Chemical composition (doses) Surface characteristics Radicals produced at cell surface IL-1β release Identified mechanisms Cell type Reference
Amorphous silica (50–200 μg/ml) Midly - + ++ Actin-mediated endocytosis, lysosomal acidification and cathepsin B activity, oxidative stress Macrophages [83]
- (−COOH) / + Actin-mediated endocytosis, lysosomal acidification and cathepsin B activity, oxidative stress   
+ (−NH2) / - N. r.   
Silanol +++ +++ +++ N.a. Macrophages [95]
Silanol +++ ++ ++ Independent of entry and cathepsin B release   
Silanol ++ + + N.a.   
Silanol + + - N.r.   
Polystyrene (100 μg/ml) + (−NH2) / + Oxidative stress Macrophages [127]
- (−COOH) / - N.r.   
/ / - N.r.   
Aluminum oxyhydroxyde (500 μg/ml) OH- +++++ ++++ ++++ Actin-mediated endocytosis, lysosomal acidification and cathepsin B activity, oxidative stress Monocytes and macrophages [85]
OH- ++++ +++ +++ Actin-mediated endocytosis and cathepsin B activity, oxidative stress   
OH- ++++ ++ ++ Actin-mediated endocytosis and cathepsin B activity, oxidative stress   
OH- ++ + + Actin-mediated endocytosis and cathepsin B activity, oxidative stress   
OH- + + +/− Oxidative stress (actin-mediated endocytosis and cathepsin B activity not convincing)   
MWCNT (10–100 μg/ml) Raw / +++ Lysosomal damage and cathepsin B activity Macrophages [100]
Purified (less Ni contamination) / ++ Lysosomal damage and cathepsin B activity   
- (−COOH) / + Cathepsin B activity   
  1. The smallest and fiber- or needle-like particles are particularly active to induce IL-1β release. Surface area properties and reactivity also govern inflammasome/IL-1β activation. Physical or chemical treatments aiming to reduce surface reactivity can control inflammogenicity of particles
  2. N.a. not assessed, N.r. not relevant