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Table 3 Effects of particle shape on the ability of cultured phagocytes to process and release IL-1β

From: The complex cascade of cellular events governing inflammasome activation and IL-1β processing in response to inhaled particles

Shape
Chemical composition (doses) Shape Length/width (nm) (ratio) IL-1β release Identified mechanisms Cell type Reference
Titanium rutile (20–500 μg/ml) Spicula 40/10 (4) ++ Actin-mediated endocytosis, lipid raft, lysosomal acidification and cathepsin B activity, oxidative stress Macrophages [87]
Spheric 30-40 (≈1) + Actin-mediated endocytosis, lipid raft, lysosomal acidification and cathepsin B activity, oxidative stress   
Poly(ethylene oxide) (3–100 μg/ml) Spherical with budding N.r. ++ Actin-mediated endocytosis and cathepsin B activity Macrophages [88]
Spherical N.r. + Actin-mediated endocytosis and Cathepsin B activity   
Spherical N.r. - N.r.   
Gold (2–10 μg/ml) Rod 40/10 (4) + N.a. Macrophages [164]
Spherical 40 (≈1) - N.a.   
Cubic 40/40/40 (≈1) - N.a.   
Carbon (2–100 μg/ml) Needle-like MWCNT 13 000/>50(<260) + Cathepsin B activity, oxydative stress, src/syk pathway and P2X7R activity Macrophages [37]
Tangled MWCNT 10 000–50 000/8 – 15(667–6250) - N.r.   
Short MWCNT 1000 - 10 000/0,5 - 20/(50–20000) - N.r.   
Needle-like MWCNT 4150/150 (28) +++ Actin-mediated endocytosis Macrophages [163]
Needle-like HTCFNW 7600/586 (13) ++ N.a.   
Needle-like HTCFNW 1800/365 (5) + Actin-mediated endocytosis   
  1. The smallest and fiber- or needle-like particles are particularly active to induce IL-1β release. Surface area properties and reactivity also govern inflammasome/IL-1β activation. Physical or chemical treatments aiming to reduce surface reactivity can control inflammogenicity of particles
  2. N.a. not assessed, N.r. not relevant
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