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Fig. 2 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 2

From: Copper oxide nanoparticle toxicity profiling using untargeted metabolomics

Fig. 2

Cell viability, cytotoxicity and IL-8 secretion in response to CuO NPs. Dose finding experiments for the untargeted metabolomics profiling. A549 cells treated with CuO NPs at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20 and 40 μg/ml for 4, 24 and 48 h and assessed for (a) cell viability (b) LDH release, c IL-8 secretion. Each data point represents the mean ± SEM (n = 3). Statistical significance was determined by ANOVA with Tukey posthoc, and identified with + for 4 h exposures, ^ for 24 h, and * for 48 h, when p < 0.05 compared to medium only treated cells. Positive controls used were Triton X-100 for viability and cytotoxicity assays, and TNF-α for IL-8 secretion (appear in red on each graph)

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