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Table 3 Serum biochemical changes in male rats treated with Cu NPs and Cu MPs following 28 days-repeated oral dose

From: Comparative toxicity and biodistribution assessments in rats following subchronic oral exposure to copper nanoparticles and microparticles

Items Cu NPs (mg/kg/day)
0 100 200 400
No. of rats 10 10 10 10
AST (IU/L) 115.6 ± 19.32a 125.2 ± 15.04 258.4 ± 21.52** 626.6 ± 60.04**
ALT (IU/L) 23.7 ± 2.80 33.3 ± 12.95 88.4 ± 20.65** 115.8 ± 19.12**
ALP (IU/L) 129.8 ± 12.45 132.0 ± 16.08 156.4 ± 22.06* 175.7 ± 38.23**
BUN (mg/dL) 19.4 ± 2.02 20.2 ± 3.24 22.4 ± 1.39 40.6 ± 6.72**
CRE (mg/dL) 0.23 ± 0.052 0.24 ± 0.041 0.26 ± 0.058 0.38 ± 0.068**
CPK (IU/L) 519.0 ± 124.43 504.2 ± 99.57 480.5 ± 94.72 335.2 ± 94.70**
TBIL (mg/dL) 0.25 ± 0.071 0.24 ± 0.055 0.34 ± 0.036 1.07 ± 0.318**
TCHO (mg/dL) 77.6 ± 8.82 79.7 ± 8.94 78.7 ± 2.52 68.6 ± 14.36
TG (mg/dL) 142.0 ± 25.52 133.4 ± 38.73 102.3 ± 29.10* 87.3 ± 28.43**
TP (g/dL) 6.2 ± 0.21 6.1 ± 0.31 5.4 ± 0.25** 5.4 ± 0.36**
ALB (g/dL) 4.2 ± 0.36 4.0 ± 0.12 4.0 ± 0.23 4.0 ± 0.17
LDH (IU/L) 227.7 ± 79.76 268.4 ± 55.99 321.1 ± 57.63* 462.3 ± 106.3**
Na (mEq/L) 141.8 ± 0.75 140.2 ± 1.35 140.3 ± 1.21 137.8 ± 2.95**
Cl (mEq/L) 97.6 ± 2.34 96.0 ± 1.17 95.8 ± 1.53* 93.4 ± 1.14**
K (mEq/L) 4.5 ± 0.49 4.8 ± 0.28 5.1 ± 0.26 6.0 ± 1.04**
Items Cu MPs (mg/kg/day)
  0 100 200 400
No. of rats 10 10 10 10
AST (IU/L) 113.7 ± 13.25 135.4 ± 29.86 138.6 ± 22.51 138.3 ± 21.89
ALT (IU/L) 24.9 ± 7.91 27.3 ± 10.83 24.7 ± 4.28 24.8 ± 5.69
ALP (IU/L) 124.7 ± 14.40 147.2 ± 20.99* 120.4 ± 18.95 122.8 ± 11.17
BUN (mg/dL) 17.3 ± 2.94 21.5 ± 4.85 21.5 ± 4.72 19.4 ± 3.67
CRE (mg/dL) 0.23 ± 0.045 0.26 ± 0.062 0.27 ± 0.058 0.24 ± 0.056
CPK (IU/L) 534.5 ± 106.82 522.7 ± 141.61 559.9 ± 80.12 516.9 ± 121.53
TBIL (mg/dL) 0.23 ± 0.045 0.24 ± 0.062 0.26 ± 0.058 0.25 ± 0.056
TCHO (mg/dL) 80.4 ± 6.41 77.7 ± 10.74 89.9 ± 15.03 77.7 ± 4.37
TG (mg/dL) 132.3 ± 20.45 139.9 ± 20.17 149.4 ± 24.16 137.6 ± 20.76
TP (g/dL) 6.4 ± 0.31 6.3 ± 0.47 6.1 ± 0.50 6.2 ± 0.16
ALB (g/dL) 4.2 ± 0.17 4.2 ± 0.27 4.3 ± 0.22 4.2 ± 0.22
LDH (IU/L) 256.8 ± 73.56 236.9 ± 61.90 298.9 ± 94.33 356.5 ± 98.59*
Na (mEq/L) 140.3 ± 1.16 141.1 ± 1.97 143.2 ± 1.14 141.6 ± 1.65
Cl (mEq/L) 97.3 ± 1.42 98.9 ± 1.52 97.6 ± 1.65 99.0 ± 1.67
K (mEq/L) 4.6 ± 0.32 5.1 ± 0.67 4.5 ± 0.36 4.6 ± 0.44
  1. Note. AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CRE creatinine, CPK creatine phosphokinase, TBIL total bilirubin, TCHO total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, TP total protein, ALB albumin, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, Na sodium, Clchloride, K potassium
  2. aValues are presented as mean ± SD
  3. *, ** P < 0.05, P < 0.01 versus vehicle control group