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Table 4 Histological changes in male rats treated with Cu NPs and MPs following 28 days-repeated oral dose

From: Comparative toxicity and biodistribution assessments in rats following subchronic oral exposure to copper nanoparticles and microparticles

Items Cu NPs (mg/kg/day) Cu MPs (mg/kg/day)
0 100 200 400 0 100 200 400
No. of rats 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Liver
 Mononuclear cell infiltration -(0)a -(0) +(4) ++(8) -(0) -(0) -(0) -(0)
 Dilated sinusoid -(0) +(2) +(7) +(9) -(0) +(2) +(2) +(4)
 Degenerated hepatocytes -(0) -(0) +(3) +(9) -(0) +(1) +(2) +(1)
 Binucleated hepatocytes +(1) +(1) +(2) +(7) +(1) +(2) +(3) +(1)
Kidney
 Dilated tubules -(0) +(2) ++(3) ++(8) -(0) +(1) +(4) +(3)
 Cell debris in tubules -(0) -(0) ++(4) ++(8) -(0) -(0) -(0) -(0)
 Purple-colored casts in tubules -(0) -(0) +(5) +++(7) -(0) -(0) -(0) -(0)
 Degenerated tubular cells -(0) -(0) +(2) ++(8) -(0) -(0) -(0) -(0)
 Inflammatory cell infiltration -(0) -(0) +(2) +(7) -(0) -(0) -(0) -(0)
Spleen
 Atrophic white pulp -(0) -(0) +(3) ++(7) -(0) -(0) -(0) -(0)
 Decreased number of follicles -(0) -(0) +(3) +++(6) -(0) -(0) -(0) -(0)
 Decreased cellularity -(0) -(0) +(1) ++(7) -(0) -(0) -(0) -(0)
 Yellow pigmentation -(0) -(0) +(1) +(5) -(0) -(0) -(0) -(0)
Thymus
 Decreased cellularity in medulla/cortex -(0) -(0) +(2) ++(5) -(0) -(0) -(0) -(0)
 Disrupted demarcation of medullar/cortex -(0) -(0) +(2) ++(4) -(0) -(0) -(0) -(0)
 Cytoplasmic vacuolation -(0) -(0) -(0) +(5) -(0) -(0) -(0) -(0)
  1. a-, normal; +, mild; ++, moderate; +++, severe; (), number of case