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Fig. 4 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 4

From: Air-liquid interface exposure to aerosols of poorly soluble nanomaterials induces different biological activation levels compared to exposure to suspensions

Fig. 4

Levels of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in culture medium of cells exposed at the ALI to aerosols. Mono (A549) and co-cultures (A549 + THP-1) were exposed for 3 h at the ALI to aerosols of TiO2 (NM105, NM101, NM100) and CeO2 (NM212) or air and kept in the incubator at the ALI for 21 h, with NMs deposited on their surface. Deposited doses were around 0.1, 1, 3 μg/cm2. At 24 h, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels in the culture medium were measured by ELISA multiplex at the basal side. For exposures at the ALI, specific air and positive controls (LPS 20 μg/mL) (not shown on the graph) were used for each NM used and for each concentration tested. Data represent the mean ± Standard Deviation (SD) of three independent experiments. A Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s post-hoc test were performed to compare treated groups to controls (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001)

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