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Table 2 Characterization of aerosols and deposition of NM on cells

From: Air-liquid interface exposure to aerosols of poorly soluble nanomaterials induces different biological activation levels compared to exposure to suspensions

Nebulizer (PALAS, AGK 2000) TiO2 NM105 TiO2 NM101 TiO2 NM100 CeO2 NM212
Suspension concentration (g/L) 1 5 10 1 5 10 1 5 10 1 5 10
Aerosol concentration (mg/m3) (Gravimetry) 7.9 52.5 105.7 7.1 35.1 75.3 10.6 55.4 101.8 10.6 56.7 113.5
Total aerosol volume concentration (um3/cm3) (SMPS + OPC) 18.6 83.3 133 11.8 66.4 114 11.7 55.3 118.4 10.8 45.8 101.3
Aerosol effective densitya (g/cm3) 0.42 0.63 0.79 0.90 0.83 0.89 0.60 0.63 0.64 0.98 1.24 1.12
Aerosol VMDb (nm) 874 963 997 683 750 1060 1240 1360 1320 597 727 842
Volume geometric standard deviation 2.56 2.15 2.01 1.91 1.83 2.23 2.52 2.31 2.23 2.52 2.17 2.25
Aerosol GMDb (nm) 196 234 249 61 74 85 289 319 317 135 190 210
Theoretical deposited massc (μg/cm2 in 3 h) 1.5 10.1 20.4 1.4 6.8 14.5 2.0 10.7 19.6 2.0 10.9 21.9
Deposited massd(μg/cm2 in 3 h) (n = 4-7) (ICP-MS) 0.06 ± 0.01 0.66 ± 0.12 2.68 ± 0.6 0.22 ± 0.03 1.51 ± 0.11 3.15 ± 0.44 0.11 ± 0.01 0.50 ± 0.12 2.85 ± 0.30 0.22 ± 0.02 1.54 ± 0.08 3.26 ± 0.68
Deposited masse(μg/cm2 in 3 h) (n = 3) (QCM) 0.11 ± 0.01 0.72 ± 0.06 1.07 ± 0.02 0.14 ± 0.01 1.08 ± 0.39 2.43 ± 0.21 0.44 ± 0.08 1.43 ± 0.53 3.21 ± 0.69 0.24 ± 0.05 1.37 ± 0.17 2.97 ± 0.64
Deposition efficiencyf (%) (ICP-MS) 4.1 6.5 13.2 15.8 22.4 21.7 5.2 4.7 14.5 10.7 14.1 14.9
Deposition efficiencyf (%)(QCM) 7.1 7.1 5.2 10.5 15.9 16.7 21.7 13.4 16.4 11.8 12.5 13.6
  1. aAerosol density = Aerosol concentration (gravimetry) / total aerosol volume concentration (SMPS + OPC)
  2. bGeometric Mean Diameter (GMD) and Volumetric Mean Diameter (VMD) were measured with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and an Optic Counter (OPC)
  3. cTheoretical deposited mass calculated when assuming 100 % deposition on cells: theoretical deposited mass = mass concentration of aerosol/volume of aerosol passing through exposure chambers during exposure
  4. dDeposited mass measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
  5. eDeposited mass measured using Quartz Cristal Microbalances (QCM)
  6. fDeposition efficiency = Deposited mass measured / theoretical deposited mass calculated