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Fig. 1 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 1

From: Combined exposure of diesel exhaust particles and respirable Soufrière Hills volcanic ash causes a (pro-)inflammatory response in an in vitro multicellular epithelial tissue barrier model

Fig. 1

Deposition of nebulized respirable fraction of volcanic ash. a Average mass deposition (μg/cm2) of volcanic ash (VA) quantified using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), following nebulisation of dry respirable ash (MVO12/7/03) using a dry powder insufflator (DP-4, Penn Century, USA) under the following conditions: single exposure (SEVA) with 4 mg (n = 14), 6 mg (n = 14) or 8 mg (n = 17), as well as repeated exposure (REVA) to 8 mg (nebulised 3× within 15 min; n = 9). Data are presented as the mean ± standard error of the mean. Scanning electron micrographs of nebulized, uncoated ash sample (REVA), show b heterogeneous particle dispersion (WD: 5.53 mm, MAG: 97×) and c an inset of image (b) (WD: 7 mm, MAG: 3.80 k ×). Images were collected at 10 kV. Scale bars are 1 mm (b) and 20 μm (c)

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