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Fig. 4 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 4

From: Early kidney damage induced by subchronic exposure to PM2.5 in rats

Fig. 4

Exposure to PM2.5 induces the release of kidney early damage markers in urine. Rats were exposed to concentrated PM2.5 (8 weeks, 4 days/week, 5 h/ day). At the end of each week twelve hours-urine was collected by metabolic cage. Six early kidney markers were evaluated by Luminex technology. Albumin does not show statistical differences at any time evaluated (a). α-1-glycoprotein (b), β-2-Microglobulin (c), Cistatin-C (d), epithermal growth factor (e) and lipocalin-2/NGAL (f) have the highest increment in urine levels in the second week. The most sensitive early markers a long to the particle exposure were β-2-Microglobulin and Cistatin-C showed increments on the first, second, sixth, and eighth week. At week 4 any early damage kidney marker showed statistical differences. On boxplot graphyc * indicate statistical differences (p < 0.05)

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