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Table 1 Physico-chemical characteristics of the NFC samples under study

From: In vitro biological responses to nanofibrillated cellulose by human dermal, lung and immune cells: surface chemistry aspect

  ζ-potential (mV)
NFC Surface modification Content of functional groups (mmol/g) a Degree of crystallinityb (%) Fibre diameter (in PBS) c NaCl d DMEM e RPMI1640 f
U-NFC none 0.03g 36 20–30 nm fibril aggregates −11.3 ± 1.3 −4.0 ± 0.2 −5.2 ± 0.6
A-NFC Carboxy-methylation 0.53 g 32 4–5 nm individual fibrils −34.1 ± 1.7 −12.7 ± 2.7 −12.6 ± 1.6
C-NFC EPTMAC quaternization 1.60 h 32 4–5 nm individual fibrils 24.2 ± 2.0 −7.2 ± 2.9 −8.1 ± 2.0
  1. a Data from [24]
  2. b Determined by XRD measurements from previous study [18]
  3. c Determined by TEM
  4. d Determined in 10 mM NaCl at 25 °C and at pH 7.4–7.5
  5. e Determined at 37 °C and at pH 7.5–7.8
  6. f Determined at 37 °C and at pH 7.9–8.1
  7. g Carboxyl groups
  8. h Hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium groups