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Table 2 Second messengers in cell culture undernatants of the tetraculture after DEPM exposure for 6, 24 and 48 h as markers for tier 2

From: Endothelial responses of the alveolar barrier in vitro in a dose-controlled exposure to diesel exhaust particulate matter

    80 ng/cm2 240 ng/cm2
Cytokine Function   6 h 24 h 48 h 6 h 24 h 48 h
    pg/mL pg/mL pg/mL pg/mL pg/mL pg/mL
L-6 Hematopoiesis, thrombopoiesis; induces T cell proliferation and differentiation; Variable effects on cytokine release by monocytes control 19.5 ± 5.7 34.3 ± 6.3 29.8 ± 7.5 19.4 ± 3.7 30.9 ± 10.1 22.7 ± 5.7
exposed 27.9 ± 5.2 30.3 ± 4.5 39.6 ± 14.3 19.2 ± 6.0 25.5 ± 3.4 29.9 ± 6.7
IL-8 Chemotactic and inflammatory cytokine; activates neutrophils inducing chemotaxis, exocytosis and the respiratory burst; elicits neutrophil accumulation at the site of inflammation control 5815 ± 610 6183 ± 530 6236 ± 665 4719 ± 484 6163 ± 540 5531 ± 693
exposed 4905 ± 754 5218 ± 681 4908 ± 673 4866 ± 807 5092 ± 596 4905 ± 785
TNF-α Monocyte activation, cytokine and prostaglandin upregulation; Endothelial cell adhesion molecule and cytokine release upregulation control 4.0 ± 1.7 3.9 ± 0.4 10.3 ± 2.9 2.9 ± 0.7 4.6 ± 0.8 11.7 ± 2.8
exposed 4.0 ± 1.4 6.2 ± 1.1 6.1 ± 0.9 3.1 ± 1.3 6.4 ± 1.6 8.0 ± 1.7
GM-CSF Granulocyte and monocyte maturation; leukocyte prostaglandin release; DC maturation; pulmonary surfactant turnover control 10.9 ± 2.7 23.7 ± 1.4 81.0 ± 12.8 6.8 ± 1.5 23.9 ± 2.5 82.4 ± 5.2
exposed 6.3 ± 1.5 24.6 ± 4.0 78.2 ± 12.6 23.0 ± 16.6 23.4 ± 2.5 83.7 ± 10.4
MCP-1 Plays a crucial role in initiating atherosclerosis by recruiting macrophages and monocytes to the vessel wall control 4832 ± 1181 6000 ± 1189 10545 ± 1308 4832 ± 1181 7428 ± 1087 8985 ± 942
exposed 4697 ± 1187 7814 ± 493 8708 ± 1187 4315 ± 621 6974 ± 473 8392 ± 1129
  1. Tetracultures were exposed to 80 ng/cm2 and 240 ng/cm2 DEPM. After exposure, undernatants were collected and analyzed for the 30 different second messengers using a MESO QuickPlex SQ120. In table 2 are only reported those that were of relevance for early endothelial activation. Data represents the mean of at least four independent experiments ± SEM