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Table 2 BAL fluid cell counts in mice, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post-exposure to 0, 2, 17 or 67 ug of MWCNT NM-400

From: Airway exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes disrupts the female reproductive cycle without affecting pregnancy outcomes in mice

   Absolute cell numbers Percentage of cell type in sample (%)
Dose level of MWCNT  Control 2 μg 18 μg 67 μg  Control  2 μg 18 μg 67 μg
4 wks N 4 9 9 6 4 9 9 6
  Neutrophils (×103) 7.8 ± 2.9 13.1 ± 7.6 272 ± 168 1173 ± 318b 1.1 ± 0.5 1.7 ± 0.9 10.9 ± 3.7 16.2 ± 3.3a
Macrophages (×103) 785 ± 190 607 ± 46 1073 ± 219 4468 ± 662c 83.1 ± 2.7 75.7 ± 2.8 76.9 ± 3.7 66.8 ± 4.6
Eosinophils (×103) 25.2 ± 12 54.5 ± 40 5.7 ± 2.4 106 ± 34 3.9 ± 2.3 4.3 ± 2.8 0.3 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.4
Lymphocytes (×103) 0.7 ± 0.7 2.0 ± 1.5 6.8 ± 3.4 103 ± 52 0.1 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.6
Total BAL cells (×103) 927 ± 195 821 ± 80 1511 ± 400 6855 ± 1095 - - - -
Epithelial cells (×103) 109 ± 25 144 ± 11 153 ± 29 1013 ± 230c 11.8 ± 2.0 18.2 ± 1.2 11.2 ± 2.2 14.4 ± 1.9
Dead cells (×103) 237 ± 53 240 ± 23 280 ± 47 943 ± 115 - - - -
6 wks  N  10 8  6  10   10 8  6  10 
  Neutrophils (×103) 5.9 ± 3.0 5.3 ± 2.2 274 ± 118 2503 ± 792c 0.6 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.3 9.3 ± 2.7 27.8 ± 5.4c
Macrophages (×103) 802 ± 175 750 ± 123 1867 ± 780 4685 ± 1426b 89.2 ± 1.0 94.1 ± 1.1 79.5 ± 3.7 63.2 ± 4.4c
Eosinophils (×103) 18.8 ± 11 1.8 ± 0.7 7.1 ± 57 15.2 ± 13a 1.7 ± 0.9 0.3 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1
Lymphocytes (×103) 0.3 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 1.0 26.4 ± 2.5 98.5 ± 46 0.1 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 1.8 ± 0.6b 1.5 ± 0.5a
Total BAL cells (×103) 898 ± 197 793 ± 124 2313 ± 942 7781 ± 2218b - - - -
Epithelial cells (×103) 71.6 ± 14 34.7 ± 5.4 186 ± 55 479 ± 137b 8.6 ± 1.3 4.7 ± 0.8 9.3 ± 1.7a 7.4 ± 1.1
Dead cells (×103) 121 ± 43 121 ± 35 281 ± 131 840 ± 186c - - - -
8 wks N  12 3 3 13   12 3 3 13 
  Neutrophils (×103) 10.1 ± 3.8 0.0 ± 0.0 400 ± 169 986 ± 261b 1.4 ± 0.5 0.0 ± 0.0 20.3 ± 4.5 22.8 ± 4.2c
Macrophages (×103) 633 ± 89 458 ± 33 1453 ± 678 2346 ± 470b 82.7 ± 2.0 85.5 ± 9.0 73.2 ± 2.8 63.8 ± 3.6c
Eosinophils (×103) 2.8 ± 1.6 49.8 ± 48 10.6 ± 5.7 25.6 ± 12 0.4 ± 0.2 8.5 ± 8.3a 0.7 ± 0.4 0.8 ± 0.3
Lymphocytes (×103) 0.7 ± 0.8 1.8 ± 0.9 35.2 ± 31 49.6 ± 1.4b 0.1 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.7 1.5 ± 0.5a
Total BAL cells (×103) 784 ± 130 540 ± 153 2013 ± 945 3830 ± 733b - - - -
Epithelial cells (×103) 137 ± 40 30.9 ± 5.1 113 ± 8.0 422 ± 108 15.4 ± 1.9 5.7 ± 0.7a 4.7 ± 1.5a 11.0 ± 1.3
Dead cells (×103) 174 ± 59 43.7 ± 29 251 ± 63 479 ± 93 - - - -
  1. Mean ± SEM. a, b, c: Statistically significant compared to control mice at the 0.5, 0.01 and 0.001 level, respectively