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Table 4 Biological functions indicated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) that were likely impacted by the particles based on the proteins that were significantly affected

From: In vitro toxicoproteomic analysis of A549 human lung epithelial cells exposed to urban air particulate matter and its water-soluble and insoluble fractions

  Total Insoluble Soluble
Biological Function # p-value # p-value # p-value
Cell Death and Survival 22 1.51 × 10−05 24 4.39 × 10−09 19 4.29 × 10−05
Cell Growth and Proliferation 21 2.42 × 10−04 22 6.91 × 10−05 18 5.85 × 10−04
Cellular Movement 17 1.83 × 10−05 18 3.89 × 10−06 16 6.56 × 10−06
Acute Inflammation 10 1.45 × 10−03 9 5.30 × 10−03 8 6.33 × 10−03
Chronic Inflammation 10 1.62 × 10−04 8 3.39 × 10−03 9 2.15 × 10−04
Cytoplasm Organization 9 2.03 × 10−02 10 6.95 × 10−03 9 6.90 × 10−03
Protein Metabolism 7 1.07 × 10−02 10 1.24 × 10−04 11 3.80 × 10−06
ROS Metabolism 6 1.40 × 10−03 8 2.74 × 10−05 5 3.83 × 10−03
Allergic Response 7 5.18 × 10−05 6 4.31 × 10−04 6 1.71 × 10−04
Nucleic Acid Metabolism 6 1.62 × 10−03 7 8.05 × 10−05 5 1.95 × 10−03
Mitochondrial Transmembrane Potential 5 1.22 × 10−04 6 8.52 × 10−06 5 5.47 × 10−05
  1. It should be noted that about half of the proteins used in pathway analysis derived from Treatment main effect, where the effect of the soluble fraction on these protein spots were typically opposite that of the total and insoluble fraction. The directions of protein expressions of several selected functions were demonstrated as heatmaps in Additional file 5: Figure S2. The # indicate the number of proteins that were significantly affected by each treatment (EHC-93 total, insoluble and soluble at 60 μg/cm2), and the p-value indicate the significance of the biological function based on IPA’s calculations. Only the significant functions that were influenced by more than 5 proteins in any particle treatment group are presented