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Table 1 Effect of nanomaterials on development of allergic airway disease in vivo

From: Mechanistic insight into the impact of nanomaterials on asthma and allergic airway disease

Nanomaterial Properties Model Characteristics Disease Related Endpoints
Material (coating) Size (nm) Surface area (m 2 /g) Agg Size: nm Species (Strain - Gender) Allergen (Route) Particle (Route) Dose AHR (LF test) IgE Eos Neu Lym Total Cells Pathophysiological Indicators GCH-MS Reference
C 14 300 - Mice (ICR –m) OVA (Int T) Int T 1.61 mg/kg x6 - - ↑ (IL5, IL13, MCP1, IL6); nc (IL4) ↑ Goblet cells [37]
C 56 45 - Mice (ICR –m) OVA (Int T) Int T 1.61 mg/kg x6 - nc nc nc - nc ↑ (IL5, IL4, IL6, MCP1); nc (IL13) nc Goblet cells [37]
C 14 300 - Mice (ICR –m) OVA (Int T) Int T 1.61 mg/kg x6 - - - - - - - ↑ (MIP1α, IL2, IL10, TARC) - [38]
C 56 45 - Mice (ICR –m) OVA (Int T) Int T 1.61 mg/kg x6 - - - - - - - ↑ (MIP1α, TARC), nc (IL2, IL10) - [38]
C 14 300 - Mice (ICR –m) OVA (Int T) Int T 1.61 mg/kg x6 ↑ (Resist) - - - - - - - nc MUC5AC [40]
C 56 45 - Mice (ICR –m) OVA (Int T) Int T 1.61 mg/kg x6 ↑ (Resist) - - - - - - - ↑ MUC5AC [40]
C 14 - 887 Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (PA) PA 2.5 mg/kg x4 - - nc ↑ (CXCL1, IL13), nc (IL4) - [41]
C 30-50 - - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int N 11 mg/kg - nc nc nc ↑ TNFα, IL4, IL5, IL10, INFγ ↑ PAS [42]
C 14.3 253.9 - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (Int N) Int N 3.6 mg/kg x3 - nc nc nc ↑ (IL4, IL5, IL10, IL13, INFγ, TNFα) - [43]
C 30-50 - - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (Int N) Int N 3.6 mg/kg x3 - - - - - nc - ↑ (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNFα) - [72]
C 14 300 - Mice (ICR –m) OVA (Int T) Int T 1.61 mg/kg x6 - - - - - ↑ (CD86, CD80, MHC II, DEC205, CD19) - [39]
C 56 45 - Mice (ICR –m) OVA (Int T) Int T 1.61 mg/kg x6 - - - - - nc nc nc (CD86, CD80, MHC II, DEC205, CD19) - [39]
C 13 - <10 μm Rat (BN –m) OVA (IP) Int T 0.5 mg/kg x3 nc (Resist) nc nc nc nc nc (INFγ, IL1β, TNFα, IL4, IL5, IL13) - [238]
TiO2 29 49.8 - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (Int N) Int N 11 mg/kg - nc nc nc nc ↑ (TNFα, IL4, IL5, IL10, IL13) nc(INF-γ) - [43]
C70 Fullerene - - - Mice (BALB/c) OVA (IP) Int N 1.1 mg/kg ↓ (Resist) nc - nc ↓ (IL4, IL5), ↑ (CYP1B1) - [106]
Fe2O3 35 39 - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int T 27.7 mg/kg x4 - nc - - ↓ IL4, INFγ - [80]
GO D 0.6 L 0.02-2μm - - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) PA 2.2 mg/kg ↑ (Penh) nc nc - ↓ (IL4, IL13) nc (IL5) ↑ GCH/PAS [65]
Latex 25 - - Mice (ICR –m) OVA (Int T) Int T 13.8 mg/kg - nc nc ↑ (IL18, MIP1α, MCP1); nc (IL5, IL13) - [272]
Latex 50 - - Mice (ICR –m) OVA (Int T) Int T 13.8 mg/kg - nc nc ↑ (IL18, MIP1α, MCP1); nc (IL5, IL13) - [272]
Latex 100 - - Mice (ICR –m) OVA (Int T) Int T 13.8 mg/kg - nc nc nc nc nc nc ↑ (IL18, MIP1α, MCP1); nc (IL5, IL13) - [272]
PS (Glycine) 50 - - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int T 11 mg/kg - - nc nc ↓ (IL5, IL13) - [79]
PS 59 - - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (Int N) Int N 16 mg/kg x3 - - - [44]
PS 59 - - Mice (BALB/c –m) OVA (Int N) Int N 16 mg/kg x3 - - - [44]
PS (Glycine) 45-49 - - Mice (BALB/c) OVA (Int T) Int T 11 mg/kg x2 nc nc nc nc ↓ (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), nc (IFN-γ) ↓ PAS [78]
SiO2 7 300 - Mice (C57BL/6-f) OVA (Inh) PA 2.7 mg/kg - nc - - - - - ↑(HO1); nc(TNFα,,IL1β, Cxcl2, Ccl2) - [55]
SiO2 34 80 - Mice (C57BL/6-f) OVA (Inh) PA 2.7 mg/kg - nc - - - - - ↑(HO1); nc(TNFα,,IL1β, Cxcl2, Ccl2) - [55]
TiO2 (Al(OH)3) 30-50 37.1 - Mice (C57BL/6-f) OVA (Inh) PA 2.7 mg/kg - nc - - - - - nc (HO1, TNFα, IL1β, Cxcl2, Ccl2) - [55]
ZnO 21 49.6 - Mice (C57BL/6-f) OVA (Inh) PA 2.7 mg/kg - - - - - - nc (HO1, TNFα, IL1β, Cxcl2, Ccl2) - [55]
ZnO (SiO2) 25 - - Mice (C57BL/6-f) OVA (Inh) PA 2.7 mg/kg - - - - - - - - [55]
SiO2 10-20 140-180 - Rat (Wistar –m) OVA (IP) Int T 1.6 mg/kg x30 ↑ (Resist) - - - - - ↑ (IL-4), nc (INF-γ) - [46]
SiO2 (PEG) 90 - - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (Int N) Int N 22.2 mg/Kg x4 - nc ↑ (IL-6, IL-5, IL-1β, IL-4, TNF-α, INF-γ ↑ PAS, MUC5AC [47]
SiO2 100 12.7 119.6 Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (Int N) Int N 10 mg/kg x6 ↑ (Resist) - nc ↑ (IL-5, IL-13, IL-1β, INF-γ nc PAS [48]
SiO2 (Meso) 100 70.6 100.5 Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (Int N) Int N 10 mg/kg x6 ↑ (Resist) - ↑ (IL-1β, INF-γ) nc (IL-5, IL-13) ↑ PAS [48]
SiO2 (PEG) 100 12.7 439.1 Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (Int N) Int N 10 mg/kg x6 nc (Resist) - nc nc nc nc nc ↑ (INF-γ) nc (IL-1β, IL-5, IL-13) nc PAS [48]
TiO2 21 - 1.5 μm Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) A (Nose only) 193μg, deposited nc (resist) nc nc ↓ (IL-5, IL-6, INF-γ, IL-13, IL-4) - [120]
TiO2 (SiO2) 10x40 132 100 Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) A 10mg/m3 2h/d x12d ↓ (Penh) nc nc - ↓ (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-13, IL-10) ↓ PAS [81]
TiO2 4-8 130 244 Mice (BALB/c) OVA (IP) Int N 11 mg/kg ↑ (Resist) - - - - - nc (IL-5) ↑ (IL-4, IL-13,IL-6, TNFa) - [273]
ZnO 50 10.8 - Mice (Balb/c –f) OVA (OA) OA 0.5 mg/kg x2 - nc - - - ↑ (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13) - [56]
CNF D-35, L-10μm 103 - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int N 7.4mg/kg x3 - nc nc nc nc nc nc (MCP-1, TNF-α) - [54]
CNF D- 36, L-5μm 124 - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int N 7.4mg/kg x3 - nc nc nc (MCP-1, TNF-α) - [54]
CNF D-70, L-5μm 56 - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int N 7.4mg/kg x3 - nc nc nc nc nc nc (MCP-1, TNF-α) - [54]
CNF D- 83, L-10μm 61 - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int N 7.4mg/kg x3 - nc nc nc nc (MCP-1, TNF-α) - [54]
SWCNT D- 1.1, L-100μm 543 - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int N 7.4mg/kg x3 - nc (MCP-1, TNF-α) - [54]
MWCNT D20-30, L-200μm 140 - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int N 7.4mg/kg x3 - nc nc (MCP-1, TNF-α) - [54]
C (PrinteX 90) 14 300   Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int N 7.4mg/kg x3 - ↑(MCP-1),
nc (TNF-α)
- [54]
SWCNT D 1.2-2, L 1-15μm - - Mice (ICR –m) OVA (Int T) Int T 1.3 mg/kg x7 - ↑ (IL4, IL33, IL5, IL13, INFγ, IL17) ↑ MUC5AC [52]
SWCNT D 0.8-1.2, L 0.1-1μm - - Mice (ICR –m) OVA (Int T) Int T 1.3 mg/kg x7 - nc ↑ (IL5, IL13) ↑ MUC5AC [52]
MWCNT D ~15 nm, L 1-10μm - - Mice (BALB/c –m) OVA (Int N) Int N 1mg/kg ↑ (sRaw) ↑ (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17) - [50]
SWCNT D 0.93-1.63 - - Rat (Wistar –m) OVA (Int T) Int T 2 mg/kg x13 ↑ (Resist) - ↑ (IL4, ROS) ↓(INFγ) ↑ PAS [53]
MWCNT D ~15 nm, L 1-10μm - ~350 μm Mice (BALB/c –m) HDM (Int N) Int N 12.5mg/kg x10 - - ↑ IL-13, TGF-β1, IL-33, TSLP, IL-25 ↑ mucin [51]
MWCNT D 67, L 0.1-10μm 26 - Mice (ICR –m) OVA (Int I) Int T 4.6 mg/kg x6 - nc ↑ (IL-4, INF-γ, IL-33, IL-1β, TARC, MCP-1) ↑ PAS [49]
MWCNT D 2–20, L 0.1-10μm - - Mice (ICR –m) OVA (Int I) Int T 4.6 mg/kg x6 - nc ↑ (IL-4, INF-γ, IL-33, MCP-1, IL-1β); - [49]
SiO2 33 - - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (Int N) Int N 13.8 mg/kg x3 - - - - - - ↑ (IL-4, IL-5) - [45]
SiO2 79 - - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (Int N) Int N 13.8 mg/kg x3 - nc - - - - - nc (IL-4, IL-5) - [45]
  1. Abbreviations: Agg agglomerate, AHR airway hyperresponsiveness, LF lung function, Resist Resistance, Penh Enhanced pause, Eos eosinophils, Neu neutrophils, Lym lymphocytes, MΦ macrophages, GCH-MS goblet cell hyperplasia-mucus secretion, −m –male, OVA ovalbumin, Int T intratracheal instillation, ↑ increase, nc no change, − not determined, −f –female, PA pharyngeal aspiration, Int N intranasal instillation, PAS Periodic acid–Schiff staining, BN Brown Norway, IP intraperitoneal injection, ↓ decrease, PS polystyrene, Inh inhalation, PEG Polyethylene glycol, Meso mesoporous, OA oropharyngeal aspiration, A aerosol, D diameter; L length; CNF carbon nanofiber, SWCNT single-walled carbon nanotubes, MWCNT multi-walled carbon nanotubes, HDM house dust mite