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Table 2 Effect of nanomaterials on experimental in vivo models of established allergic airway disease

From: Mechanistic insight into the impact of nanomaterials on asthma and allergic airway disease

Nanomaterial Properties Model Characteristics Disease Related Endpoints
Material (coating) Size (nm) Surface area (m 2 /g) Agg size (nm) Species (Strain - Gender) Allergen (Route) Particle (Route) Dose AHR (LF test) IgE Eos Neu Lym Total Cells Pathophysiological Indicators GCH-MS Reference
Ag 6 0.11 - Mice (BALBc –f) OVA (IP) A 40mg/kg x5d ↓ (Penh) - nc - nc ↓ (IL-4 IL-5, IL-13, VEGF) ↓ MUC5AC [112]
Ag 6 - - Mice (C57BL/6 –f) OVA (IP) A 40mg/kg x5d ↓ (Penh) - nc nc ↓ (IL-4 IL-5, IL-13, NFkB) - [111]
Ag 33 - - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) A 3.3mg/m3 x6h/d x7d - - - - - - - - [274]
Ag 33 0.016 - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (Int N) A 3.3mg/m3 x6h x7d nc (Penh) nc nc nc nc nc nc nc (IL-13) - - [116]
Au 40 - - Mice (BALB/c –m) TDI (dermal) OA 0.8 mg/kg ↑ (Resist) nc nc - ↓ (TNF-α, IL-6) nc (MIP-2, MCP-1) - [63]
Au 6.3 - - Mice (A/J –m) OVA (IP) Int N 60μg/Kg x2 ↓ (Resist) - - - - - ↓ (IL-4, IL-13, CCL11, CCL24) ↓ PAS [117]
Au 6.3 - - Mice (Swiss Webster –m) OVA (IP) Int N 60μg/Kg x2 - - - ↓ (IL-5, Il-1β, IL-6, ROS) - [117]
TiO2 22 - 272 Mice (BALB/c –m) TDI (dermal) OA 0.8 mg/kg nc (Resist) nc nc - nc (TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-2, MCP-1) - [63]
CuO 46.67 - 375.8 Mice 0(BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int N 100μg/kg x3 ↑ (Penh) ↑ (ROS, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-13, IL-4 ↑ MUC5AC [64]
C 20 442 344-5720 Mice (C57BL/6 –f) OVA (IP) PA 10mg/kg - - - - nc - - [60]
C 34.8 - - Mice (BALB/c) OVA (A) A 526μg/m3 x24h ↑ (Penh) - - - ↑(IL-13), ↓(IL-5), nc (IL-4) ↑ PAS [61]
C 53.2 - - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) A 504μg/m3 (24h) ↑ (Penh) - - nc ↑ (IL-5, IL-13) - [110]
C 35.2 - - Dog (Beagle) Ragweed (IP) A 232.3μg/m3 nc (Resist) nc nc nc nc nc - - [58]
C 7 - - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) A 507μg/m3 x24h - - nc ↑* - nc - ↑ (LTB4, PGE2), nc (8-isoprostane) - [59]
C 7 - - Mice (BALB/c) OVA (IP) A 507μg/m3 x24h - - - - - - - ↑ (TNF-α), nc (CC16) ↑ PAS [62]
α-Fe2O3 30 28.98 950-2000 Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int T 5mg/kg - nc nc nc (TNF-α, Il-1β, IL6) - [275]
FeO2 43 41.95 200 Mice (BALB/c –m) OVA (IP) Int T 1.1mg/kg x3 - - - - - ↑ (IFN-γ), nc (IL-4) - [93]
GO D 0.61, L 0.02-2μm - - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) PA 2.2mg/kg x4 nc (Penh) nc nc nc - nc (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) - [65]
SiO2 14 - - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int T 2.7mg/kg nc (Resist) - - ↑ (IL-13, MCP-1, MIP-1, Tarc); nc (IL-4, INF-γ, TNF-α, KC) ↑ MUC5AC PAS [66]
SiO2 (PEG) 14 - - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int T 2.7mg/kg ↑ (Resist) - - ↑ (IL-4, IL-13, MCP-1, MIP-1, Tarc, KC), nc (INF-γ, TNF-α) ↑ MUC5AC PAS [66]
SiO2 (PO4) 14 - - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int T 2.7mg/kg nc (Resist) - nc nc nc nc - ↑ (MIP-1); nc (IL-13, IL-4, INF-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1, Tarc, KC) nc MUC5AC PAS [66]
SiO2 (Amino) 15 - - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int T 2.7mg/kg nc (Resist) - nc nc nc - ↑ (IL-13, IL-4); ↓ (Tarc); nc (INF-γ, TNFα, MCP1, KC) nc MUC5AC PAS [66]
SiO2 100 12.7 - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int N 11 mg/kg x3 nc (Resist) nc nc nc nc nc (IL-5, IL-13, IL-1β, INF-γ) nc PAS [276]
SiO2 (Meso) 100 70.6   Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int N 11 mg/kg x3 nc (Resist) nc nc nc nc nc nc (IL-5, IL-13, IL-1β, INF-γ) nc PAS [276]
SiO2 (PEG) 100 12.7 - Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) Int N 11 mg/kg x3 nc (Resist) nc nc nc nc nc nc nc (IL-5, IL-13, IL-1β, INF-γ) nc PAS [276]
TiO2 5 - 168 Rat (BN –m) OVA (IP) A 9.4mg/m3 x6h - - nc ↓ (MCP-1, IL-4, IL-6, INF-γ) ↓ PAS [118]
TiO2 21 - 4200 Rat (BN –m) OVA (In) A 159 μg, deposited nc (Resist) nc nc nc nc - - [119]
TiO2 21 - 4200 Rat (DA-m) OVA (In) A 168 μg, deposited nc (Resist) nc nc nc - - [119]
TiO2 21 - 1.5 μm Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) A 193 μg, deposited ↓ (Resist) nc nc ↓ (IL-4, IL-13, IL-5,IL-6, INF-γ) - [120]
TiO2 21 - 1.5 μm Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) A 32 μg, deposited ↑ (Resist) - nc (IL-4, IL-13, IL-5,IL-6, INF-γ) - [120]
TiO2 4-8 130 244 Mice (BALB/c) OVA (IP) Int N 5.5 mg/kg x4 nc (Resist) - - - - - - - - [273]
MWCNT D – 9.5, L– 1.5μm 250-300 - Rats (BN –f) TMA (dermal) A 22mg/m3 x5h x7d - nc nc nc nc nc - - [68]
MWCNT D - 20–30, L-5-10μm - 324 Mice (C57BL/6) HDM (Int N) O 2 mg/kg - nc nc nc nc (IL-1β, IL-13, IL-4, IL-5 CCL20) ↑(CCL2, CXCL1/2) - [71]
MWCNT D 30–50 L 0.3-50μm 109.29 >2 μm Mice (C57BL/6J) OVA (IP) OA 4mg/kg - nc ↓* nc nc - nc (IL-13, IL-5,, IL-17α) ↓(TGF-β1) nc PAS [70]
MWCNT D 30–50 L 0.3-50μm 109.29 - Mice (C57BL/6 –) OVA (IP) A 100mg/m3 - - nc nc nc nc - nc (IL-13) ↑ (IL-5, TGF-β1) - [67]
MWCNT D 10–30 L 0.3-56μm - - Mice (WT –m) OVA (IP) OA 4mg/kg - - nc nc nc nc nc nc (IL-13, IL-1β, TGF-β1, TNF –α, IL-10) nc PAS [69]
  1. Abbreviations: Agg agglomerate, AHR airway hyperresponsiveness, LF lung function, Resist Resistance, Penh Enhanced pause, Eos eosinophils, Neu neutrophils, Lym lymphocytes, MΦ macrophages, GCH-MS goblet cell hyperplasia-mucus secretion, −f –female, OVA ovalbumin, IP intraperitoneal injection, A aerosol, ↓ decrease, nc no change, ↑ increase, − not determined, −m –male, Int N intranasal instillation, PA pharyngeal aspiration, PAS Periodic acid–Schiff staining, TDI toluene diisocyanate, OA oropharyngeal aspiration, Int T intratracheal instillation, PEG Polyethylene glycol, Meso mesoporous, BN Brown Norway, DA Dark Agouti, MWCNT multi-walled carbon nanotubes, D diameter; L length, TMA trimellitic anhydride, HDM house dust mite