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Table 3 Ultrafine pollutant particular matter effects in experimental in vivo models of asthma.

From: Mechanistic insight into the impact of nanomaterials on asthma and allergic airway disease

Nanomaterial Properties Model Characteristics Disease Related Endpoints Ref
Material 1° Size (nm) Location Species (strain) Allergen (route) Exposure Route Dose AHR (test) IgE Eos Neu Lym Total cell Gene Expression Markers GCH-MS  
Ultrafine Particles <150 Los Angeles Mice (BALB/c -f) OVA (Int N) Int N 0.95 μg/kg - nc nc nc - nc ↑ (TNF-α, IL-5, IL-13, IL-6, MCP-1, MIPI-α) nc (IL-4, INF-γ) - [231]
DCB-230 200 - Rats (BN–neonates) n/a A 200 μg/m3 (20min x7d) ↑ (Resist) - nc - - ↓ (IL-18, VEGF, TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-1β) - [234]
Ultrafine Particles <180 Downtown Los Angeles Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (Int N) Int N 0.01 μg/kg - nc nc - ↑ (IL-12, IL-6, IL-1β) nc (IL-13) - [232]
Ultrafine Particles <150 Downtown Los Angeles Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (Int N) Int N 297 – 394 μg/m3 - nc nc nc - - - ↑ (IL-5) nc (IL-13) - [256]
Ultrafine Particles <170 Fresno, CA, USA (Summer Night) Mice (BALB/c –m) HDM (Int N) Int N 45 μg/m3 - - nc nc nc nc nc nc (HO-1) - [229]
Ultrafine Particles <170 Fresno, CA, USA (Winter Day) Mice (BALB/c –m) HDM (Int N) Int N 45 μg/m3 - - nc nc ↑ (HO-1) - [229]
Ultrafine Particles <170 Fresno, CA, USA (Winter Night) Mice (BALB/c –m) HDM (Int N) Int N 45 μg/m3 - - nc nc nc nc nc nc (HO-1) - [229]
Ultrafine Particles <170 Fresno, CA, USA (Summer Day) Mice (BALB/c –m) HDM (Int N) Int N 45 μg/m3 - - nc nc nc nc ↑ (HO-1) - [229]
Ultrafine Particles <180 Los Angeles Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (Int N) Int N 0.04 μg/kg - - - - ↑ (IL-5, IL-13, IL-17a) ↑ sig MUC5AC [258]
Ultrafine Particles <180 Los Angeles Mice (Il4raR576) OVA (IP) Int N 0.18 μg/kg ↑ (Resist) - - - ↑ (IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-5) - [259]
Ultrafine Particles <180 Detroit (upwind/downwind) Mice (BALB/c –f) OVA (IP) OA 0.28, 1.4 μg/kg - nc nc nc - - - ↑ (IL-5 (1.4 only)) - [257]
  1. Abbreviations: 1 primary, AHR airway hyperresponsiveness, LF lung function, Resist Resistance, Eos eosinophils, Neu neutrophils, Lym lymphocytes, MΦ macrophages, GCH-MS goblet cell hyperplasia-mucus secretion, −f –female, OVA ovalbumin, Int N intranasal instillation, ↑ increase, nc no change; − not determined, DCB combustion-generated ultrafine particles containing environmental persistent free radicals using 1,2-dichlorobenzene, BN Brown Norway, A aerosol, ↓ decrease, − not determined, −m –male, HDM house dust mite, IP intraperitoneal injection, OA oropharyngeal aspiration