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Table 1 Characteristics of the NiO particles used in the study

From: Kinetics and dissolution of intratracheally administered nickel oxide nanomaterials in rats

  Name (Manufacturer) Crystalline Shape Primary particle sizea
Specific surface areab
Converted spherical primary particle size based on the specific surface area
Number-based agglomerate particle sizec (DLS measurement)
SEM/TEM picture
A US3352 (US Research Nanomaterials, Inc., TX, USA) NaCl type Spherical 20 ± 8 51 18 49
B NovaWireNiO1 (Novarials Co., MA, USA) NaCl type Wire Length 240
Diameter 29
180 5.0 Impossible determinatione
C I small particle (Kusaka Rare Metal Products Co., LTD., Tokyo, Japan) NaCl type Irregular 140 ± 67 6.6 140 1600
D Ni(II) Oxide Nanopowder (Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC., MO, USA) NaCl type Spherical Impossible observationd 93 9.6 39
  1. aDetermined by SEM (scanning electron microscopy, S4800, Hitachi High-Technologies Co., Tokyo, Japan) or TEM (transmission electron microscopy, JEM-2010, JEOL, Tokyo, Japan) of 500 particles for each material
  2. bDetermined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis (GEMINI VII, Shimadzu Co., Kyoto, Japan) after drying
  3. cDetermined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) (Zetasizer nano-ZS; Malvern Instruments Ltd., Worcestershire, UK)
  4. d The small NiO D particle size, caused the particles to aggregate when the suspension was dried. Consequently, particle dimensions were difficult to ascertain even with suspension dilution and spraying
  5. e Reproducibiliy of dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement for NiO B was not feasible