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Table 1 Characteristics of the NiO particles used in the study

From: Kinetics and dissolution of intratracheally administered nickel oxide nanomaterials in rats

  Name (Manufacturer) Crystalline Shape Primary particle sizea
[nm]
Specific surface areab
[m2/g]
Converted spherical primary particle size based on the specific surface area
[nm]
Number-based agglomerate particle sizec (DLS measurement)
[nm]
SEM/TEM picture
A US3352 (US Research Nanomaterials, Inc., TX, USA) NaCl type Spherical 20 ± 8 51 18 49
B NovaWireNiO1 (Novarials Co., MA, USA) NaCl type Wire Length 240
Diameter 29
180 5.0 Impossible determinatione
C I small particle (Kusaka Rare Metal Products Co., LTD., Tokyo, Japan) NaCl type Irregular 140 ± 67 6.6 140 1600
D Ni(II) Oxide Nanopowder (Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC., MO, USA) NaCl type Spherical Impossible observationd 93 9.6 39
  1. aDetermined by SEM (scanning electron microscopy, S4800, Hitachi High-Technologies Co., Tokyo, Japan) or TEM (transmission electron microscopy, JEM-2010, JEOL, Tokyo, Japan) of 500 particles for each material
  2. bDetermined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis (GEMINI VII, Shimadzu Co., Kyoto, Japan) after drying
  3. cDetermined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) (Zetasizer nano-ZS; Malvern Instruments Ltd., Worcestershire, UK)
  4. d The small NiO D particle size, caused the particles to aggregate when the suspension was dried. Consequently, particle dimensions were difficult to ascertain even with suspension dilution and spraying
  5. e Reproducibiliy of dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement for NiO B was not feasible