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Table 2 Ranking of TiO 2 NPs based on induction of CD83 and CD86 expression, and IL-12p40 production. 1, strongest induction; 14, weakest induction. The ranks for the three parameters were summed and the TiO 2 NPs were ranked accordingly

From: The crystal structure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles influences immune activity in vitro and in vivo

crystal form primary size (nm) coating manufacturer CD83 CD86 IL-12p40 score
anat./rut. 10–30 none Skyspring 1 1 3 5
anatase 20 none JRC 3 2 1 6
anatase 10–25 none Io-Li-Tec 4 5 2 11
anatase 20 none Io-Li-Tec 5 4 4 13
anatase 10–25 none Skyspring 2 6 5 13
rutile 20–40 SiO2 Skyspring 6 3 9 18
rutile 20–40 Al2O3 Skyspring 8 7 6 21
rutile 10–30 none Skyspring 7 8 8 23
rutile 200 none Io-Li-Tec 9 9 7 25
rutile 20 hydrophobic JRC 12 11 10 33
rutile 10–30 none Io-Li-Tec 14 10 11 35
rutile 20–40 SiO2 Io-Li-Tec 10 13 13 36
rutile 20 hydrophilic JRC 11 12 14 37
rutile 20–40 silicon oil Io-Li-Tec 13 14 12 39
  1. Bold: ranking does not fit the anatase vs. rutile difference in induction