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Table 2 Ti and TiO2 particles in human (post mortem 4% formaldehyde fixed) liver and spleen

From: Detection of titanium particles in human liver and spleen and possible health implications

   Total Ti TiO2 (Particles) Ti in particlesa   Total Ti TiO2 (Particles) Ti in particlesa
Human Tissue   size range number of particles min - max Tissue   size range number of particles min - max
subject   mg/kg nm 109 /kg tissue mg/kg tissue   mg/kg nm 109 /kg tissue mg/kg tissue
1 Liver 0.04 85–320 2.3–7.2 0.01–0.04 Spleen 0.1 90–580 5.7–18 0.06–0.2
2 Liver 0.09 90–440 6.6–21 0.08–0.3 Spleen 0.4 90–420 18–56 0.1–0.4
3 Liver < LODt < LODs < LODn < LODc Spleen 0.02 85–370 1.2–3.8 0.01–0.04
4 Liver 0.05 85–550 1.4–4.4 0.03–0.1 Spleen 0.09 85–320 2.8–8.8 0.01–0.02
5 Liver < LODt < LODs < LODn < LODc Spleen 0.03 85–520 1.5–4.7 0.02–0.07
6 Liver 0.03 85–380 2.1–6.6 0.01–0.04 Spleen 0.02 85–350 1.3–4.1 0.01–0.04
7 Liver < LODt 85–370 1.3–4.1 0.01–0.02 Spleen 0.02 < LODs <LODn < LODc
8 Liver 0.02 < LODs < LODn < LODc Spleen < LODt < LODs <LODn < LODc
9 Liver < LODt < LODs < LODn < LODc Spleen 0.2 85–410 9.3–29 0.08–0.3
10 Liver < LODt < LODs < LODn < LODc Spleen 0.02 85–360 2.1–6.6 0.01–0.04
11 Liver 0.04 85–450 2.6–8.1 0.02–0.07 Spleen 0.03 90–420 3.2–10 0.02–0.07
12 Liver 0.02 < LODs < LODn < LODc Spleen 0.04 90–720 2.1–6.6 0.05–0.2
13 Liver < LODt 90–440 1.0–3.1 0.03–0.1 Spleen 0.02 90–390 2.3–7.2 0.03–0.10
14 Liver < LODt < LODs < LODn < LOD Spleen 0.03 90–430 2.7–5.3 0.03–0.1
15 Liver < LODt < LODs < LODn < LODc Spleen 0.04 90–500 2.4–7.5 0.03–0.1
  n > lod 7 7–7 7–7 7–7   14 13–13 13–13 13–13
  average 0.04b 86–421 2–8 0.03–0.1   0.08 c 88–445 4–13 0.04–0.1
  mode 0.04 85–440 0.01–0.04   0.02 85–420 2–7 0.01–0.04
  stdev 0.02 2–74 2–6 0.02–0.1   0.1 3–110 5–15 0.03–0.11
  min 0.02 85–320 1–3 0.01–0.02   0.02 85–320 1–4 0.01–0.02
  max 0.09 90–550 7–21 0.08–0.3   0.4 90–720 18–56 0.1–0.4
  1. Particle TiO2 concentrations are reported as measured (min) and after correction for the analytical recovery (max). All concentrations are corrected for total concentrations in blanks (0.05 mg/kg). LODt (total-Ti) = 0.01 mg/kg; LODs (size) = 85 nm; LODn (number) = 0.8 × 109/kg; LODc (calculated Ti in particles) = 0.005 mg/kg; acalculated Ti in particle, calculated according to Laborda et al. [21] and Peters et al. b if calculated with ½ LOD for samples below LOD, average total-Ti = 0.02 mg/kg;cif calculated with ½ LOD for samples below LOD, average total-Ti = 0.07 mg/kg