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Table 3 Dose intervals (in μg/cm2) determined for each NM and each methodology

From: Predicting the in vivo pulmonary toxicity induced by acute exposure to poorly soluble nanomaterials by using advanced in vitro methods

  Cytokines NM105 NM101 NM100 NM212
Dose interval Dose interval Dose interval Dose interval
BMDL BMDU Median BMDL BMDU Median BMDL BMDU Median BMDL BMDU Median
In vitro, suspension (24 h) IL-1β 0.10 11.90 4.63–11.20 0.53 2.85 2.82–6.36 10.68 32.59 10.96–26.19 0.06 10.26 0.430–14.168
IL-6 4.50 11.11 4.86 10.47 ND ND ND ND
IL-8 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
TNF-α 4.76 11.20 2.82 6.36 11.25 19.80 0.80 18.08
In vitro, suspension (3 h + 21 h) IL-1β 0.43 2.25 0.26–1.51 0.60 6.61 0.80–6.19 3.47 53.23 3.47–55.64 3.47 54.81 3.37–52.50
IL-6 0.20 1.36 1.28 8.17 ND ND 2.30 50.25
IL-8 0.11 1.11 0.84 3.73 3.35 58.05 3.42 9.64
TNF-α 0.31 1.66 0.76 5.78 3.83 52.87 3.31 54.75
ALI (3 h + 21 h) IL-1β 0.051 0.80 0.061–0.82 0.061 0.74 0.099–0.80 0.006 0.91 0.045–0.90 0.63 2.61 0.88–2.71
IL-6 0.037 0.81 0.089 0.77 0.012 0.88 0.88 2.71
IL-8 0.078 0.83 1.13 11.87 0.078 0.90 ND ND
TNF-α 0.070 0.82 0.11 0.84 0.24 0.97 ND ND
In vivo IL-1β 0.0011 0.067 0.0007–0.075 ND ND 0.0022–0.084 ND ND ND ND ND 0.0000–0.074
IL-6 0.00069 0.13 0.0044 0.086 ND ND 0.000 0.019
IL-8 0.00019 0.084 ND ND ND ND 0.0033 0.082
TNF-α 0.00075 0.0091 0.000 0.082 ND ND 0.000 0.074
  1. BMDL Benchmark Dose Lower confidence limit, BMDU Benchmark Dose Upper confidence limit. Median: Median BMDL and BMDU values calculated by pooling the four cytokines, to have a dose-interval for a general pro-inflammatory response