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Table 1 Summary effect of HDM and CeO2NP co-exposure on pulmonary inflammation and airway dysfunction

From: Cerium dioxide nanoparticles exacerbate house dust mite induced type II airway inflammation

  Bronchoalveolar lavage cells Lung inflammatory indicators mRNA (protein)   Airway mucin, structure and mechanics
  Total Neu Lym Eos MCPT1 IL-4 IL-5 IL-13 CCL11 CCL17 CD177 IL33 Plasma IgE Mucin Clca1 Muc5ac SLC26A4 M.T. α-sma PCNA AHR (Rrs)
CeLD RPT nc nc nc nc (↑) nc (nc) nc nc (nc) nc (nc) nc (nc) nc (nc) nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc
CeHD RPT nc nc nc nc (nc) nc (nc) nc nc (nc) nc (nc) nc (nc) nc (nc) nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc
HDM nc nc (↑) ↑ (nc) ↑ (nc) ↑ (nc) nc (nc) nc (nc) nc nc nc nc nc
HDM + CeLD SGL nc nc nc nc (nc) nc (nc) nc nc (nc) nc (nc) nc (nc) nc (nc) nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc
HDM + CeHD SGL nc nc nc nc (nc) nc (nc) nc nc (nc) nc (nc) nc (nc) (nc) nc nc nc nc nc nc nc
HDM + CeLD RPT nc nc nc nc (nc) nc (nc) nc ↓ (nc) nc (nc) nc (nc) nc (nc) nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc
HDM + CeHD RPT nc nc ↑ (↑) ↑ (nc) nc nc (nc) ↑ (↑) ↑ (nc) (nc) nc nc nc nc
  1. Pulmonary and systemic responses to intranasal administration of HDM and CeO2NP treatment over 3- week administration regimens is provided as a qualitative metric for cross treatment and protocol comparison purposes. Treatments are indicated within the first column with protocol details as described in Fig. 1. For CeLD RPT, CeHD RPT and HDM treatments, comparison against control animals is represented as an increase (↑), a decrease (↓) or no change (nc) for each measurement. For HDM + CeLD SGL, HDM + CeHD SGL, HDM + CeLD RPT and HDM + CeHD RPT treatments, comparison against HDM treated animals is represented as an increase (↑), a decrease (↓) or no change (nc) for each measurement. Abbreviations used: Neu, neutrophils; Lym, lymphocytes; Eos, eosinophils; M.T., Masson’s Trichrome; α-sma, alpha smooth muscle actin; AHR, airway hyperresponsiveness; Rrs, Resistance