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Fig. 1 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 1

From: Phosphonate coating of SiO2 nanoparticles abrogates inflammatory effects and local changes of the lipid composition in the rat lung: a complementary bioimaging study

Fig. 1

Effects of SiO2-n and SiO2-p NPs in vitro. a-d Dose dependent effects of SiO2-n and SiO2-p (22.5, 45, 90, and 180 μg·mL− 1) on NR8383 cells, taken from [54]. Release of a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), b glucuronidase (Glu), c H2O2, and d tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). LDH and Glu activities were measured relative to positive control (Triton X-100-lysed cells) after 16 h. The H2O2 concentration was measured in μmol·L− 1 after 90 min, and bioactive TNF-α was measured after 16 h as lysis of TNF-α responsive L-929 cells. All columns represent mean values ± standard deviation of 3 independent experiments. Untreated cells served as controls (n = 3) whose mean values are indicated by dashed lines. Significance was tested by two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Dunnett’s multiple comparison test (*: p ≤ 0.05, **: p ≤ 0.01, ***: p ≤ 0.001)

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