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Table 2 Summaries of the neutrophil counts in BALF and pathological features in the rat lung

From: Usefulness of myeloperoxidase as a biomarker for the ranking of pulmonary toxicity of nanomaterials

(A) Intratracheal instillation   3 days 1 week 1 month 3 months 6 months
Pathological featurefeature       
 Control (distilled water)  
 NiO 0.2 mg + -~± +
 NiO 1.0 mg + + +
 Control (distilled water)   -~± -~± -~+ ±~+
 TiO2 (P90) 0.2 mg -or+ -~+ +~++ ±
 TiO2 (P90) 1.0 mg + -~+ -~+ ± ±
 Control (distilled water)   -~±
 TiO2 (Rutile) 0.2 mg
 TiO2 (Rutile) 1.0 mg
 Control (distilled water)  
 CeO2 0.2 mg
 CeO2 1.0 mg
 Control (distilled water)  
 ZnO 0.2 mg + ±
 ZnO 1.0 mg ++ ± -~±
 Control (Triton 0.1%)   -~± -~± ±~+
 SWCNT 0.2 mg ± ± -~+ ±~++ -~+
 SWCNT 0.4 mg ± ±~+ ±~+ + ±~+
 Control (Triton 0.05%)   ± -~± -~± -~± -~±
 MWCNT (Short) 0.2 mg + + ± ± -~±
 MWCNT (Short) 1.0 mg +~++ ±~+ ± ± ±
 Control (Triton 0.05%)   -~± ±~++ -~+
 MWCNT (Long) 0.2 mg +~++ ± -~± ±~++ ±~+
 MWCNT (Long) 0.6 mg +~++ ± -~+ ±~+
 Control (Tween80 0.1%)  
 Toner 1.0 mg ±
Neutrophil counts in BALF (1000 cells/mL ± SD)
 Control (distilled water)   2.88 ± 1.58 0.22 ± 0.49 0.20 ± 0.45 0.08 ± 0.17 0.69 ± 1.53
 NiO 0.2 mg 21.1 ± 8.74** 78.93 ± 18.40** 52.38 ± 12.34** 13.03 ± 12.13** 1.27 ± 1.97
 NiO 1.0 mg 153.5 ± 44.6** 158.51 ± 56.43** 161.69 ± 67.27** 279.80 ± 125.57** 59.80 ± 15.28**
 Control (distilled water)   0.22 ± 0.25 0.20 ± 0.22 0.26 ± 0.47 0.25 ± 0.35 1.13 ± 1.19
 TiO2 (P90) 0.2 mg 0.80 ± 0.55 0.31 ± 0.21 0.65 ± 0.46 0.53 ± 0.50 2.36 ± 3.82
 TiO2 (P90) 1.0 mg 54.50 ± 31.86 20.35 ± 13.61** 2.89 ± 1.97* 0.32 ± 0.35 0.49 ± 0.42
 Control (distilled water)   1.73 ± 10.6 0.80 ± 0.73 4.74 ± 2.08 0.57 ± 0.80 0.28 ± 0.39
 TiO2 (Rutile) 0.2 mg 11.95 ± 4.94** 1.61 ± 1.29 1.81 ± 1.13* 11.07 ± 22.57 1.62 ± 2.88
 TiO2 (Rutile) 1.0 mg 174.7 ± 121.8** 110.33 ± 39.14** 5.27 ± 0.98 105.21 ± 229.82 0.35 ± 0.51
 Control (distilled water)   6.50 ± 5.17 1.76 ± 0.96 0.90 ± 1.32 0.45 ± 0.49 1.37 ± 2.26
 CeO2 0.2 mg 111.66 ± 48.09** 119.52 ± 79.79** 27.17 ± 15.26** 10.93 ± 3.25** 1.91 ± 1.39
 CeO2 1.0 mg 170.52 ± 35.04** 234.21 ± 55.62** 74.65 ± 6.72** 56.73 ± 15.54** 11.07 ± 1.88**
 Control (distilled water)   2.35 ± 0.41 0.47 ± 0.36 1.08 ± 0.32 1.12 ± 0.81 3.55 ± 1.92
 ZnO 0.2 mg 191.38 ± 42.19** 7.032 ± 1.61** 1.02 ± 0.94 3.21 ± 2.23 3.10 ± 1.32
 ZnO 1.0 mg 395.82 ± 78.47** 11.44 ± 8.65** 0.98 ± 1.28 1.73 ± 1.66 4.20 ± 3.36
 Control (Triton 0.1%)   5.36 ± 5.77 0.62 ± 0.38 0.86 ± 0.78 0.38 ± 0.85 0.67 ± 0.75
 SWCNT 0.2 mg 47.33 ± 12.75** 61.63 ± 16.66** 29.58 ± 43.26** 11.98 ± 9.86** 8.74 ± 3.62**
 SWCNT 0.4 mg 39.96 ± 19.05** 94.93 ± 37.00** 270.52 ± 132.86* 19.69 ± 21.59** 16.19 ± 14.49*
 Control (Triton 0.05%)   0 ± 0 0.07 ± 0.15 0.11 ± 0.24 0.18 ± 0.41 0.41 ± 0.93
 MWCNT (Short) 0.2 mg 9.22 ± 10.34* 0.14 ± 0.30 0.51 ± 0.86 0.44 ± 0.46 0.14 ± 0.32
 MWCNT (Short) 1.0 mg 37.26 ± 36.95** 4.61 ± 6.57 26.23 ± 33.10** 2.25 ± 2.70 0.69 ± 1.55
 Control (Triton 0.05%)   0.55 ± 0.60 0.14 ± 0.31 0.12 ± 0.27 0.61 ± 0.86 1.17 ± 1.49
 MWCNT (Long) 0.2 mg 25.80 ± 12.18** 3.49 ± 1.94** 3.53 ± 0.85** 4.00 ± 3.64* 0.97 ± 1.07
 MWCNT (Long) 0.6 mg 45.93 ± 13.04** 6.29 ± 3.46** 6.35 ± 7.53* 2.42 ± 1.58 0.91 ± 0.64
 Control (Tween80 0.1%)   0.13 ± 0.30 0.17 ± 0.38 0.43 ± 0.48 0.90 ± 1.08 0.20 ± 0.45
 Toner 1.0 mg 29.02 ± 11.53** 4.17 ± 4.75 2.27 ± 0.81* 1.38 ± 0.86 0 ± 0
(B) Inhalation exposure   3 days   1 month 3 months  
Pathological featurefeature
 control    
 NiO Low   
 NiO High - or +   +  
 control    
 TiO2 (Rutile) Low   
 TiO2 (Rutile) High   
 control    
 CeO2 Low   
 CeO2 High   +  
 control    
 ZnO Low   
 ZnO High -~±   
Neutrophil counts in BALF (×1000 cells/mL ± SD)
 control   1.09 ± 2.43   14.23 ± 22.90 0.35 ± 0.77  
 NiO Low 1.39 ± 3.12   3.67 ± 2.84 1.30 ± 1.44  
 NiO High 84.10 ± 54.54**   21.97 ± 12.84 1.29 ± 1.43  
 control   0 ± 0   0.09 ± 0.19 0 ± 0  
 TiO2 (Rutile) Low 0.15 ± 0.20   0 ± 0 0.48 ± 1.07  
 TiO2 (Rutile) High 0.12 ± 0.27   0.18 ± 0.19 0 ± 0  
 control   0.55 ± 0.54   1.65 ± 0.64 1.94 ± 1.10  
 CeO2 Low 38.22 ± 6.21**   19.70 ± 7.38** 11.13 ± 2.77**  
 CeO2 High 96.74 ± 40.54**   114.92 ± 72.26** 49.18 ± 16.35**  
 control   2.24 ± 1.95   0.56 ± 0.62 1.77 ± 0.66  
 ZnO Low 1.91 ± 0.63   0 ± 0* 2.50 ± 0.49  
 ZnO High 126.06 ± 45.21**   0.99 ± 2.17 2.24 ± 0.81  
  1. Grade of changes - none, ± minimum, + mild,++ moderate, +++ remarked, SD standard deviation, Asterisks indicate significant differences compared with each control (Mann-Whitney U test) (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01)