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Fig. 3 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 3

From: Inhaled nanomaterials and the respiratory microbiome: clinical, immunological and toxicological perspectives

Fig. 3

Summary of possible mechanisms of interaction between nanoparticles and the cell surface of gram-negative (left panel) and gram-positive (right panel) bacteria. Potential interaction between nanomaterials and microbial cells are illustrated. Hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond formation are predominant forces promoting the attachment of nanomaterials to the cell membrane of gram-negative bacteria. This is driven by the interaction between lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and the outer membrane. The peptidoglycan layer and lipid bilayer of the cell membrane in gram-positive bacteria determines the electrostatic pull between nanomaterials and bacterial cell surface

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