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Fig. 5 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 5

From: Inhaled nanomaterials and the respiratory microbiome: clinical, immunological and toxicological perspectives

Fig. 5

A summary of the health consequences from inhaled nanomaterials (NMs). Following inhalation, NMs enter airway cells, lymph nodes and the circulatory system including an ability to cross the blood-brain barrier through the olfactory system. They can accumulate in organs including the lungs, liver and brain leading to a range of disease states. Some NMs influence the human immune system and interfere with phagocyte (e.g. macrophage) function

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