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Fig. 3 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 3

From: Silver nanoparticles promote procoagulant activity of red blood cells: a potential risk of thrombosis in susceptible population

Fig. 3

Effects of AgNP on oxidative stress and intracellular calcium in human RBCs. After RBCs were treated with distilled water (DW; control), various concentrations of AgNP and AgMP for 4 h, (a) ROS generation (n = 6) and (b) intracellular GSH level (n = 4) (c) ATP level (n = 4) were detected after RBCs were treated with AgNP and AgMP for 4 h. d Intracellular calcium level (n = 6) increased after 4 h exposure to various concentrations of AgNP and AgMP and (e) inhibition was employed by 5 min pretreatment with 100 μM N-acetylcysteine (NAC) before 4 h exposure to AgNP (n = 5). f Scramblase activity and (g) flippase activity were determined by measuring C6-NBD PC and C6-NBD PS translocation, respectively (n = 4). Values are mean ± S.E. of 4-6 independent experiments, * represents significant differences from control group (p < 0.05), # represents significant differences from AgNP-treated group (p < 0.05)

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