Skip to main content

Advertisement

Fig. 4 | Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Fig. 4

From: Silver nanoparticles promote procoagulant activity of red blood cells: a potential risk of thrombosis in susceptible population

Fig. 4

The role of ROS and intracellular calcium on PS exposure and shape change by AgNP. a Before treatment with 100 μg/mL AgNP for 4 h, RBCs were preincubated with various antioxidants including 100 μM NAC for 5 min, 0.5 mM Vitamin C (Vit.C) or 1 mM Trolox (Tro) for 15 min, and then PS exposure were determined using flow cytometry (n = 4). b RBCs were preincubated with 3 mM EGTA for 30 min before treatment with 0, 50 and 100 μg/mL of AgNP for 4 h, and then PS exposure were determined using flow cytometry (n = 4). c, d Before treatment with 100 μg/mL of AgNP for 4 h, RBCs were preincubated with 100 μM NAC for 5 min or 3 mM EGTA for 30 min. Shape change was observed using confocal microscope and scanning electron microscope, respectively (n = 4). Values are mean ± S.E. of 4 independent experiments, * represents significant differences from control group (p < 0.05), # represents significant differences from AgNP-treated group (p < 0.05). Scale bars : 5 μm

Back to article page