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Table 2 In vitro studies of the toxicology of underground railway particulate matter

From: Health effects of particulate matter air pollution in underground railway systems – a critical review of the evidence

Author Publication Year Underground [Airborne PM] (μg/m3 unless stated) Underground PM Composition Comparator PM Model Exposure Conc/Time Findings
Seaton [38] 2005 London, UK PM2.5 = 270–480; PNC = 14,000-29,000/cm3 PM2.5: Fe = 64–71%; Cr = 0.1–0.2%; Mn = 0.5–1%; Cu = 0.1–0.9%; quartz = 1–2% Urban PM10; TiO2; welding fume A549 PM2.5 1–100 μg/ml, 8–24 h Underground PM2.5 caused concentration-dependent increase in IL-8 release, LDH release, plasmid damage.
Karlsson [40] 2005 Stockholm, Sweden Not stated PM10: Fe = 39% (mainly Fe3O4); Si = 6%; Al = 3%; Ca = 1%; Cu < 1%; Ba< 1%; Mn < 1% Urban street PM10 A549 PM10 9–70 μg/ml (5–40 μg/cm2), 4 h Underground PM10 more genotoxic and oxidative-stress inducing than urban PM10.
Karlsson [41] 2006 Stockholm, Sweden Not stated Not stated (may be same as [40]) Wood boiler PM; tyre wear PM10/PM2.5; urban PM10 A549; monocyte-derived macrophages PM10 70 μg/ml (40 μg/cm2), 4 h Underground PM10 induced more DNA damage in A549 cells than other PM tested. In macrophages, urban PM10 was most potent inducer of inflammatory mediator release.
Karlsson [42] 2008 Stockholm, Sweden Not stated Wood boiler PM; tyre wear PM10, urban PM10; diesel PM; Fe3O4; Fe2O3; CuO; Cu-Zn A549 PM10 35–70 μg/ml (20–40 μg/cm2), 2–8 h For mitochondrial depolarisation by PM10, DEP > underground = wood>street>tyre. Underground PM10 most potent ROS generator, and increased FPG sites and DNA damage more than Fe3O4, Fe2O3, CuO, Cu-Zn.
Lindbom [55] 2006 Stockholm, Sweden PM10 = 469; PM2.5 = 258 Predominantly Fe, with some Si, Ca, Ba, Cu Roadwear PM10; street PM10; DEP Monocyte-derived macrophages; RPMI 2650 nasal epithelial cells; BEAS-2B PM10 10–500 μg/ml, 18 h Underground PM10 was less potent in eliciting IL-6, IL-8, TNFα release from macrophages, but most potent in eliciting their release from BEAS-2B.
Lindbom [56] 2007 Stockholm, Sweden Roadwear PM10, street PM10 RAW 264.7 macrophages PM10 1–100 μg/ml, 18 h For inflammatory mediator release by PM10, street>underground>roadwear. For arachidonic acid release and measures of oxidative stress (DTT, TBARS), underground>street>roadwear.
Bachoual [57] 2007 Metro and RER, Paris, France PM10 Metro = 67; RER = 3609 PM10 Metro: Fe = 41.8%; Mn < 1%; Ca = 1.25%; Cu = 1.2%; S = 2.2%; Si = 1.45%; PM10 RER: Fe = 61%; Mn = 7%; Ca = 0.2%; Cu = 0.45%; S = 1.95%; Si = 1.8% Carbon black; TiO2; DEP RAW 264.7 macrophages; C57BL/6 mice PM10 RAW 264.7: 0.05–50 μg/ml (0.01–10 μg/cm2), 3–24 h; Mice: 0.22–4.48 mg/kg (5–100 μg/mouse), 8/24 h RAW 264.7: underground PM10 sets elicited most MIP2 and TNFα release. DFX reduced TNFα release by RER but not Metro PM10. Mice: RER PM10 but not CB or DEP induced release of TNFα and MIP2, and HO-1 expression.
Jung [58] 2012 Seoul, South Korea PM10 = 34; PM2.5 = 4.5 Not stated None CHO-K1; BEAS-2B 1.6–100 μg/ml organic extract of PM10 Underground PM10 induced significant cell death in CHO-K1, but not BEAS-2B cells. DNA micronucleus formation and strand breakage by underground PM10 inhibited by ROS scavengers.
Loxham [60] 2015 Mainline underground station, Europe PM10–2.5 = 180; PM2.5 = 71; PM0.18 = 44 PM10–2.5: Fe = 32.1%, Cu = 1.68%; Mg = 1.63%; Ca = 1.52%; PM2.5: Fe = 28.4%; Cu = 1.41%; Mg = 2.12%; Ca = 1.52%; PM0.18: Fe = 32.9%; Cu = 1.71%; Mg = 2.56%; Ca = 2.20% (see also [8]) None 16HBE14o-; PBEC PM10–2.5, PM2.5, PM0.18 6.25–50 μg/ml (0.6–12.5 μg/cm2), 24 h PM crosses PBEC mucous barrier to cause concentration-dependent release of IL-8 increasing with smaller PM size. ROS generation and HO-1 induction observed, both inhibited by DFX and NAC.
Spagnolo [62] 2015 Not stated PM10–2.5 = 26; PM2.5–1 = 13; PM1–0.5 = 3.7 μg/m3; PM0.5–0.25 = 14 μg/m3 (All ng/m3) PM10–2.5: Fe = 545, Ca = 1568, Ba = 122, Cr = 15, Cu = 14; PM2.5–1: Fe = 212, Ca = 256, Ba = 96, Cr = 3, Cu = 12; PM1–0.5: Fe = 71, Ca = 58 Ba = 99, Cr = 2 Cu = 4; PM0.5–0.25: Fe = 31; Ca = 30; Ba = 99; Cr = ND; Cu = 3 Commercial/intermediate station area PM; outdoor PM NCI-H727 70 μg/ml, 3/6/24 h Cytotoxicity: platform PM > intermediate area PM, but smallest fractions of outdoor PM most cytotoxic. ROS generation: larger PM sizes>smaller PM sizes. Correlations between transition metals and ROS generation.
Moreno [66] 2017 Barcelona (six stations), Spain PM2.5 = 33–87 (102 during maintenance activity) (All ng/m3) PM2.5: Fe = 8000-34,000, Ca = 500–1300 Cu = 33–331, Mn = 107–301 M120(CB), NIST1648a Cell-free depletion of ascorbate and GSH PM2.5, cell-free Antioxidant depletion not associated with PM mass. Antioxidant depletion positively associated with Cu, As, Mn, Zn, Ba, ascorbate depletion negatively associated with Fe
Janssen [67] 2014 Mainline underground station, Europe PM10 = 409; PM2.5 = 143 Not stated (see [8] for characterisation of separate samples from same location) PM10 and PM2.5: urban background; continuous traffic; stop-go traffic; farm Cell-free depletion of ascorbate, DTT, ESR PM10 and PM2.5, cell-free Underground PM had greatest oxidative potential of all PM types studied.
Gali [69] 2017 Hong Kong PM10–2.5 = 10 ± 5; PM2.5 = 48 ± 13 Data as graph only, Fe ≈ 0.2% (similar to other PM sets in study) PM10–2.5 and PM2.5: above ground railway journey; bus journey; ambient site RAW 264.7 macrophages 10–100 μg PM suspension, 4/24 h Underground PM10–2.5 had greatest negative effect on cell viability. Little difference across PM2.5 sets. Mass/mass: underground PM10–2.5 was best generator of ROS. Mass/volume: above ground PM was more potent. No association with Fe.