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Table 2 Level of secondary messengers in cell culture undernatants of the tetra-culture after exposure to 0.05, 0.5 and 5 μg/cm2 AgNWs for 6 and 24 h

From: In vitro exposure of a 3D-tetraculture representative for the alveolar barrier at the air-liquid interface to silver particles and nanowires

Cytokine Function 6 h post-exposure 24 h post-exposure
Neg_control pg/mL 0.05 μg/cm2 pg/mL 0.5 μg/cm2 pg/mL 5 μg/cm2 pg/mL Neg_control pg/mL 0.05 μg/cm2 pg/mL 0.5 μg/cm2 pg/mL 5 μg/cm2 pg/mL
IL-6 Chemotactic and pro-inflammatory cytokine; supports the growth of B cells 1.18 ± 0.10 6.22 ± 3.23 23.58 ± 1.71* 27.98 ± 5.12* 1.69 ± 0.26 1.76 ± 0.83 13.05 ± 2.46* 34.03 ± 0.80*
IL-8 Chemotactic and pro-inflammatory cytokine 738 ± 33 2216 ± 233* 2599 ± 33* 2621 ± 60* 1423 ± 74 1482 ± 447 2590 ± 22* 2675 ± 57 *
TNF-α Promotes the inflammation process by upregulation of other pro-inflammatory cytokines 0.83 ± 0.17 3.59 ± 1.34 8.51 ± 1.56* 11.57 ± 3.25* 1.47 ± 0.12 1.74 ± 0.42 5.44 ± 1.22* 10.70 ± 0.45*
IL-1β Mediator of the inflammatory response 1.69 ± 0.07 3.03 ± 0.53* 5.13 ± 0.27* 5.43 ± 0.59* 3.56 ± 0.22 1.95 ± 0.59* 4.78 ± 0.71* 7.07 ± 0.41*
IL-2 Key functions in the immune system, tolerance and immunity 0.17 ± 0.10 0.62 ± 0.40* 1.65 ± 0.55* 1.53 ± 0.52* 0.34 ± 0.17 0.21 ± 0.21 1.17 ± 0.65 2.52 ± 0.46*
IL-4 Key regulator in humoral and adaptive immunity 0.006 ± 0.011 0.055 ± 0.012* 0.153 ± 0.010* 0.169 ± 0.042* 0.006 ± 0.012 0.034 ± 0.021 0.135 ± 0.022* 0.260 ± 0.024*
IL-12p70 Controls and stimulates the activities of natural killer cells 0.06 ± 0.02 0.35 ± 0.16* 0.66 ± 0.11* 0.92 ± 0.05* 0.14 ± 0.04 0.14 ± 0.11 0.75 ± 0.15* 1.40 ± 0.50*
IL-13 Key regulator in humoral and adaptive immunity proliferation 5.24 ± 0.22 11.94 ± 1.02* 17.16 ± 2.05* 17.65 ± 0.76* 8.94 ± 0.67 6.52 ± 2.08 13.55 ± 1.31* 18.36 ± 2.01*
IL-10 Anti-inflammatory cytokine; downregulates the expression of Th1 cytokines 0.11 ± 0.03 1.44 ± 1.17 2.41 ± 0.79* 2.56 ± 0.47* 0.19 ± 0.04 0.45 ± 0.12 1.63 ± 0.59* 2.57 ± 0.22*
IFN-γ Immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory effects 0.13 ± 0.23 0.56 ± 0.59 3.12 ± 0.83* 2.53 ± 1.52* 0.28 ± 0.25 0.54 ± 0.59 2.24 ± 1.59 4.50 ± 0.90*
  1. Data represent the mean of three biological replicates ± SD. Values statistically different from their control are in bold and marked by asterisk