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Table 1 Examples of in vitro studies on cellular toxicity of various carbon-based nanomaterials

From: Cellular Toxicity and Immunological Effects of Carbon-based Nanomaterials

Types Length Diameter Dose Target cells Cytotoxicity Reference
Carbon nanotubes;
Nanographite;
Carbon black
1.5 μm;
4.5 μm;
9.5 nm;
12 nm;
15~120 μg/ml RAW 264.7 LDH release, TNF-α production, ROS production [9]
Pristine graphene 500-1000 nm 2~3 nm 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 μg/ ml RAW 264.7 ROS increase, apoptosis by activation of the mitochondrial pathway, activation of the MAPKs (JNK, ERK and p38) and the TGF-beta-related signaling pathways [14]
SWCNTs 0.78~200 μg/ml HEK293 cell Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in G1. [24]
Water-soluble fullerene Human dermal broblasts, HepG2, neuronal human astrocytes Lactate dehydrogenase release, cellular membrane disruption and lipid peroxidation [25]
SWCNTs;
MWCNTs;
MWCNTs
1-2 nm;
10-20 nm;
30-50 nm
5~100 μg/ml NR8383 cell ROS generation and reduced cell viability. [26]
Graphene oxides (GOs);
Acid functionalized SWCNTs
500 nm;
355 nm
10~50 μg/ml Peritoneal macrophages LDH release, decreased autophagic degradation, lysosomal membrane destabilization [40]
SWCNTs 150 nm 1~2 nm 0~50 μg/ml Mouse peritoneal macrophages Mitochondrial damage [41]
MWCNT1;
MWCNT2
13 μm;
5 μm
40~100 nm;
30 nm
0.625~10 μg/cm2 RAW 264.7 Mitochondrial activity reduction, LDH release [42]
Aci- and tau-MWCNTs 5~10 μm 10~20 nm 0, 5, 20, 40, and 80 μg/ml RAW 264.7 Apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway and scavenger receptor [43]
SWCNT;
MWCNT
1~5 μm;
1~2 μm
< 2 nm;
10~30 nm
30, 100 and 300 μg/ml RAW 264.7 Cell death induced by SWCNT;
no cell death induced by MWCNT
[44]
SWNTs;
MWNT10;
Fullerene
1 μm;
0.5~40 μm;
1.4 nm;
10-20 nm;
1.41~226.0 μg/cm2;
1.41~22.60 μg/cm2;
1.41~226.0 μg/cm2
Alveolar macrophage Reduced cell viability [45]
C-SWNTs;
C60-fullerenes;
Graphite particles
Human monocytes-derived macrophages apoptosis/necrosis [46]
Carbon black nanoparticles 175± 80 nm 20± 6 nm 30 μg/cm2 RAW264.7, human alveolar macrophages Caspase 1 and IL-1β release, LDH release, plasma membrane disruption, pyroptosis [47]
Fe@CNPs 50 and 400 μg/ ml HEK293 and C33A cell ROS generation and apoptosis [48]
SWCNHs 400 nm ~100 nm 0.01~0.3 mg/ml RAW 264.7 Apoptosis and necrosis associated with lysosomal membrane destabilization, ROS generation, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) release [51]
MWCNTs 0.5-2 μm < 8 nm;
20 30 nm;
> 50 nm
100 μg/ml 3T3, RAW 264.7 and bronchiolar epithelial cells. Cytotoxicity differing with particle sizes and cell types, reactive oxygen species generation, lysosomal membrane destabilization and mitochondrial permeability. [52]
SWCNTs 0.8~2.0 nm 25 or 50 μg/cm2 Normal and malignant human mesothelial cells ROS generation, increased cell death, enhanced DNA damage and H2AX phosphorylation, and activated PARP, AP-1, NF-κB, p38, and Akt [55]
MWCNTs < 1μm 9.5 nm 2.5~100 μg/ml RAW264.7, A549 LDH release and oxidative stress [57]
Carbon nanohorns 1~100 μg/ml RAW 264.7 Reactive oxygen species generation and apoptosis lysosomal membrane permeabilization [58]
Pristine-SWCNTs 1 μg/cm2 RAW264.7 Decreased cell viability and ATP production, increased ROS and NO production, activation of the MAP kinase pathway, increased levels of apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins and ER stress-related proteins [59]
Functionalized MWCNTs (tau-MWCNTs);
Pristine MWCNTs (raw-MWCNTs);
300~600 nm;
10~20 nm;
0~ 80 μg/ml RAW 264.7 Apoptosis related to mitochondrial injury, less toxicity induced by tau-MWCNTs [60]
MWCNTs 20 μg/ml Mature human monocyte-derived macrophage cells Apoptosis and necrosis [61]
Short MWCNTs;
Long MWCNTs
0.6 μm;
20 μm
30.6 nm;
27.8 nm
10 μg/ml Primary human alveolar macrophage Reduced cell viability, ROS generation and inflammatory mediator release induced by long MWCNTs. [64]
MWCNTs;
Onion-like shell-shaped carbon nanoparticles;
~2 μm;
10~15 nm;
50~100 nm
0~500 μg/ml 16HBE14o- ROS generation, reduced cell viability [70]
MWCNTs-COOH; MWCNTs-PEG 0.9 μm;
0.8 μm
24.6 nm;
27.3 nm
0~100 μg/ml RAW 264.7 cells, primary rat peritoneal macrophages Activation of oxidative stress-responsive pathways, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB [71]
Purified-MWCNT; COOH-MWCNT 1122 nm;
652 nm
1~50 μg/ml Human alveolar macrophage Reduced cell viability and increased inflammatory mediator (IL-1β and IL-8) release [76]
Two types of functionalized carbon nanotubes (1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction and the oxidation- /amidation treatment) 1~10 μg/ml Primary B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, and peritoneal macrophages Intake by B and T lymphocytes as well as macrophages in vitro without affecting cell viability. [103]