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Table 2 Summary of the inhalation parameters and basic results of the biokinetics study

From: Quantitative biokinetics over a 28 day period of freshly generated, pristine, 20 nm titanium dioxide nanoparticle aerosols in healthy adult rats after a single two-hour inhalation exposure

Time point after inhalation 1 h 4 h 24 h 7d 28d
Inhaled aerosol volume (L) 1 39.37 ± 1.12 42.94 ± 2.04 38.13 ± 0.96 38.97 ± 1.01 42.77 ± 1.66
Inhaled [48V]TiO2-NP activity (kBq) 1 34.54 ± 0.98 44.76 ± 2.12 27.57 ± 0.7 24.56 ± 0.63 51.84 ± 2.01
Deposited [48V]TiO2-NP activity (kBq) 1 20.37 ± 2.21 27.94 ± 9.79 15.64 ± 5.69 12.26 ± 2.85 21.55 ± 6.19
Deposited TiO2-NP mass (μg) 1 1.64 ± 0.18 1.51 ± 0.53 1.08 ± 0.39 0.8 ± 0.19 1.37 ± 0.39
Deposited fraction per inhaled aerosol 1 0.59 ± 0.08 0.39 ± 0.12 0.57 ± 0.21 0.50 ± 0.13 0.42 ± 0.13
Deposited alveolar [48V]TiO2-NP fraction per IPLD 1 0.95 ± 0.03 0.75 ± 0.12 0.72 ± 0.04 0.69 ± 0.02 0.74 ± 0.02
Mucociliary cleared fraction per ILD 1 0.04 ± 0.03 0.20 ± 0.12 0.21 ± 0.03 0.26 ± 0.04 0.26 ± 0.04
Long-term macrophage- mediated cleared fraction per ILPD     0.15 ± 0.03 0.31 ± 0.04
  1. 1according to Eq. (4 through 14) of the Additional file 1
  2. Parameters of the intratracheal [48V]TiO2-NP aerosol inhalation and deposition are: inhaled aerosol volume and 48V activity, deposited 48V activity and corresponding [48V]TiO2-NP mass, deposited 48V activity as a fraction of the inhaled 48V activity and the alveolar deposited fraction relative to the total lung deposit. Additionally, the fast mucociliary [48V]TiO2-NP clearance (MCC) during the first two days and the long-term macrophage-mediated clearance (LT-MC) of [48V]TiO2-NP from day 3–28 after inhalation are presented, calculated based on fecal excretion and retention in the gastro-intestinal-tract (GIT). MCC fractions are normalized to the initial lung dose (ILD) i.e. the sum of all organ and tissue 48V radioactivities