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Table 3 [48V]TiO2-NP retention in lungs and BAL, and in secondary organs and tissues over time p.e

From: Quantitative biokinetics over a 28 day period of freshly generated, pristine, 20 nm titanium dioxide nanoparticle aerosols in healthy adult rats after a single two-hour inhalation exposure

  retention time (d) 1 h 4 h 24 h 7d 28d
organ or tissue fraction of IPLD mean ± STD mean ± STD mean ± STD mean ± STD mean ± STD
total lungs Corr. fast clear. 0.989 ± 0.004 0.936 ± 0.023 0.918 ± 0.007 0.735 ± 0.032 0.439 ± 0.051
total lungs Corr. resid. Blood 0.989 ± 0.004 0.935 ± 0.023 0.918 ± 0.007 0.735 ± 0.032 0.439 ± 0.051
total lungs all corr. 0.988 ± 0.004 0.934 ± 0.023 0.91 ± 0.009 0.732 ± 0.032 0.439 ± 0.051
total lungs fract. Conc. [1/g] 0.583 ± 0.017 0.508 ± 0.022 0.553 ± 0.013 0.372 ± 0.013 0.254 ± 0.02
total lungs (*101) mass conc. [ng/g] 6.624 ± 0.938 8.445 ± 2.779 5.281 ± 1.995 3.286 ± 0.936 3.073 ± 0.706
total lungs(*1010) numb. Conc. (#/g) 1.63 ± 0.24 1.73 ± 0.73 1.43 ± 0.62 0.95 ± 0.28 0.57 ± 0.15
lav. Lungs Corr. fast clear. 0.556 ± 0.021 0.577 ± 0.064 0.662 ± 0.033 0.555 ± 0.031 0.296 ± 0.034
lav. Lungs Corr. resid. Blood 0.556 ± 0.021 0.576 ± 0.064 0.661 ± 0.033 0.554 ± 0.031 0.296 ± 0.153
lav. Lungs all corr. 0.556 ± 0.021 0.556 ± 0.021 0.576 ± 0.064 0.554 ± 0.031 0.296 ± 0.034
lav. Lungs fract. Conc. [1/g] 0.35 ± 0.012 0.333 ± 0.03 0.427 ± 0.017 0.349 ± 0.025 0.171 ± 0.014
lav. Lungs (*101) mass conc. [ng/g] 0.04 ± 0.01 0.05 ± 0.02 0.04 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.01
lav. Lungs (*109) numb. Conc. (#/g) 9.13 ± 1.22 10.95 ± 5.97 10.17 ± 3.81 7.2 ± 2.24 3.9 ± 1.35
BALC Corr. fast clear. 0.136 ± 0.044 0.165 ± 0.029 0.181 ± 0.027 0.175 ± 0.014 0.14 ± 0.035
BALC Corr. resid. Blood n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
BALC all corr. 0.136 ± 0.044 0.165 ± 0.029 0.181 ± 0.027 0.174 ± 0.014 0.14 ± 0.035
BALC fract. Conc. [1/g] 13.609 ± 4.385 16.515 ± 2.896 18.109 ± 2.743 17.437 ± 1.361 14.032 ± 3.531
BALC (*101) mass conc. [ng/g] 1.53 ± 0.51 2.51 ± 0.55 1.64 ± 0.84 1.21 ± 0.25 1.64 ± 0.3
BAL cells (*108) numb. Conc. (#/g) 3507 ± 1145.71 5065. ± 1427. 4459. ± 2527. 3518 ± 784. 3031. ± 587.
BALF Corr. fast clear. 0.297 ± 0.035 0.194 ± 0.038 0.075 ± 0.016 0.006 ± 0.003 0.002 ± 0.002
BALF Corr. resid. Blood n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
BALF all corr. 0.297 ± 0.035 0.194 ± 0.038 0.075 ± 0.016 0.006 ± 0.003 0.002 ± 0.002
BALF fract. Conc. [1/g] 2.968 ± 0.348 1.937 ± 0.384 0.751 ± 0.155 0.057 ± 0.029 0.025 ± 0.016
BALF (*101) mass conc. [ng/g] 0.34 ± 0.07 0.29 ± 0.05 0.07 ± 0.04 0 ± 0 0 ± 0
BALF (*108) numb. Conc. (#/g) 779.8 ± 170.4 591. ± 159. 187. ± 109. 12.16 ± 8.82 6.37 ± 6.25
trachea (*10− 3) Corr. fast clear. 13.16 ± 9.74 9.02 ± 3.48 3.06 ± 0.75 2.4 ± 1.31 1.77 ± 0.62
trachea (*10− 3) Corr. resid. Blood n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
trachea (*10− 3) all corr. 13.16 ± 9.74 9.02 ± 3.48 3.06 ± 0.75 2.4 ± 1.31 1.77 ± 0.62
trachea (*10− 3) fract. Conc. [1/g] 48.74 ± 28.69 31.22 ± 11.93 14.79 ± 6.3 5.89 ± 2.32 7.54 ± 0.98
trachea (*10− 3) mass conc. [ng/g] 53.97 ± 30.95 44.47 ± 7.26 14.43 ± 10.66 3.99 ± 1.32 9.01 ± 1.55
trachea (*109) numb. Conc. (#/g) 1.23 ± 0.7 0.88 ± 0.07 0.4 ± 0.31 0.12 ± 0.04 0.25 ± 0.07
liver (*10− 3) Corr. fast clear. 0.356 ± 0.173 6.032 ± 0.814 5.048 ± 0.798 5.786 ± 0.751 1.495 ± 0.225
liver (*10− 3) Corr. resid. Blood 0.303 ± 0.179 5.108 ± 0.788 4.538 ± 0.753 5.675 ± 0.732 1.451 ± 0.221
liver (*10− 3) all corr. 0.303 ± 0.179 5.106 ± 0.787 4.525 ± 0.75 5.617 ± 0.741 1.451 ± 0.221
liver (*10− 4) fract. Conc. [1/g] 0.344 ± 0.208 5.641 ± 1.094 4.791 ± 0.855 5.835 ± 0.743 1.469 ± 0.315
liver (*10− 2) mass conc. [ng/g] 3.93 ± 2.63 86.46 ± 24.29 41.08 ± 10.77 41.3 ± 11.51 17.87 ± 5.83
liver (*106) numb. Conc. (#/g) 0.9 ± 0.61 17.4 ± 5.9 11.06 ± 3.34 11.96 ± 3.46 3.29 ± 1.06
liver (*10− 3) transloc. NP fract. 28.29 ± 15.2 105.01 ± 26.32 64.75 ± 6.31 44.23 ± 5.56 9.99 ± 1.12
spleen (*10− 3) Corr. fast clear. 0.016 ± 0.016 0.186 ± 0.012 0.337 ± 0.085 0.581 ± 0.093 0.44 ± 0.063
spleen (*10− 3) Corr. resid. Blood 0.010 ± 0.016 0.047 ± 0.022 0.251 ± 0.093 0.565 ± 0.094 0.437 ± 0.064
spleen (*10− 3) all corr. 0.010 ± 0.016 0.047 ± 0.022 0.25 ± 0.093 0.565 ± 0.094 0.437 ± 0.064
spleen (*10− 4) fract. Conc. [1/g] 0.099 ± 0.159 0.357 ± 0.126 2 ± 1.148 4.389 ± 0.749 7.109 ± 3.1
spleen (*10− 2) mass conc. [ng/g] 0.97 ± 1.46 6.12 ± 4.24 17.02 ± 9.64 30.21 ± 5.7 83.99 ± 38.19
spleen (*107) numb. Conc. (#/g) 0.02 ± 0.03 0.13 ± 0.10 0.46 ± 0.27 0.87 ± 0.15 1.53 ± 0.65
spleen (*10− 3) transloc. NP fract. 0.66 ± 0.96 1.01 ± 0.59 3.58 ± 1.22 4.44 ± 0.69 3.01 ± 0.28
kidneys (*10− 3) Corr. fast clear. 0.12 ± 0.018 3.048 ± 0.949 3.642 ± 0.477 3.914 ± 0.26 1.316 ± 0.201
kidneys (*10− 3) Corr. resid. Blood 0.095 ± 0.02 2.542 ± 0.91 3.426 ± 0.456 3.858 ± 0.255 1.297 ± 0.196
kidneys (*10− 3) all corr. 0.095 ± 0.02 2.541 ± 0.909 3.415 ± 0.453 3.83 ± 0.255 1.297 ± 0.196
kidneys (*10− 4) fract. Conc. [1/g] 0.375 ± 0.141 7.901 ± 2.109 14.376 ± 4.544 12.52 ± 1.308 4.87 ± 0.862
kidneys (*10− 1) mass conc. [ng/g] 0.428 ± 0.179 12.33 ± 4.6 12.08 ± 3.34 8.78 ± 2.1 5.97 ± 2.01
kidneys (*106) numb. Conc. (#/g) 0.98 ± 0.42 24.66 ± 10.26 32.39 ± 9.36 25.39 ± 6.12 11.03 ± 3.99
kidneys (*10− 3) transloc. NP fract. 9.76 ± 4.62 49.56 ± 6.3 48.97 ± 3.43 30.21 ± 2.79 8.98 ± 1.46
heart (*10− 6) Corr. fast clear. 14.61 ± 3.84 239.67 ± 44.03 215.05 ± 80.53 138.94 ± 20.52 26.61 ± 12.72
heart (*10− 6) Corr. resid. Blood 8.84 ± 3.8 132.79 ± 28.73 165.81 ± 79.5 127.29 ± 21.72 22.57 ± 13.15
heart (*10− 6) all corr. 8.84 ± 3.8 132.78 ± 28.73 165.79 ± 79.48 127.26 ± 21.72 22.57 ± 13.15
heart (*10− 6) fract. Conc. [1/g] 9.65 ± 4.43 130.84 ± 22.55 192.2 ± 104.5 132.8 ± 31.34 25.1 ± 14.84
heart (*10− 2) mass conc. [ng/g] 1.13 ± 0.57 20.64 ± 7.77 15.14 ± 4.85 9.37 ± 3.41 3.28 ± 2.36
heart (*106) numb. Conc. (#/g) 0.26 ± 0.13 4.21 ± 1.88 4.03 ± 1.23 2.7 ± 0.95 0.6 ± 0.45
heart (*10− 3) transloc. NP fract. 0.95 ± 0.59 2.82 ± 1.03 2.34 ± 0.98 1.01 ± 0.2 0.16 ± 0.09
brain (*10− 6) Corr. fast clear. 17.28 ± 5.86 44.97 ± 11.42 49.2 ± 31.11 133.55 ± 34.6 44.6 ± 36.07
brain (*10− 6) Corr. resid. Blood 15.78 ± 6.06 17.95 ± 6.31 35.88 ± 31.41 130.58 ± 34.94 43.59 ± 35.85
brain (*10− 6) all corr. 15.78 ± 6.06 17.95 ± 6.31 35.88 ± 31.41 130.57 ± 34.94 43.59 ± 35.85
brain (*10− 6) fract. Conc. [1/g] 8.67 ± 3.89 9.03 ± 3 19.22 ± 16.7 67.05 ± 16.98 24.56 ± 19.85
brain (*10− 2) mass conc. [ng/g] 0.97 ± 0.46 1.33 ± 0.28 2.02 ± 2.5 4.5 ± 0.63 2.8 ± 1.69
brain (*106) numb. Conc. (#/g) 0.22 ± 0.11 0.26 ± 0.03 0.56 ± 0.72 1.3 ± 0.12 0.51 ± 0.29
brain (*10− 3) transloc. NP fract. 1.45 ± 0.34 0.36 ± 0.1 0.53 ± 0.5 1.03 ± 0.26 0.3 ± 0.25
uterus (*10− 3) Corr. fast clear. 0.011 ± 0.009 0.415 ± 0.077 0.293 ± 0.056 0.233 ± 0.027 0.136 ± 0.02
uterus (*10− 3) Corr. resid. Blood 0.009 ± 0.009 0.38 ± 0.076 0.277 ± 0.055 0.229 ± 0.028 0.135 ± 0.02
uterus (*10− 3) all corr. 0.009 ± 0.009 0.378 ± 0.076 0.267 ± 0.057 0.229 ± 0.028 0.135 ± 0.02
uterus (*10− 4) fract. Conc. [1/g] 0.025 ± 0.027 1.012 ± 0.199 0.802 ± 0.155 0.678 ± 0.095 0.363 ± 0.061
uterus (*10− 2) mass conc. [ng/g] 0.295 ± 0.336 15.968 ± 6.147 7.122 ± 1.734 4.766 ± 1.492 4.411 ± 1.246
uterus (*106) numb. Conc. (#/g) 0.088 ± 0.066 4.17 ± 1.99 1.92 ± 0.53 1.38 ± 0.43 0.81 ± 0.24
uterus (*10− 3) transloc. NP fract. 0.78 ± 0.84 8.39 ± 3.8 3.83 ± 0.75 1.81 ± 0.26 0.93 ± 0.13
blood (*10− 3) Corr. fast clear. 0.73 ± 0.08 13.36 ± 2.7 6.33 ± 0.66 1.38 ± 0.35 0.56 ± 0.23
blood (*10− 3) Corr. resid. Blood n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
blood (*10− 3) all corr. 0.73 ± 0.08 13.35 ± 2.7 6.3 ± 0.65 1.38 ± 0.35 0.56 ± 0.23
blood (*10− 4) fract. Conc. [1/g] 0.429 ± 0.046 7.271 ± 1.606 3.828 ± 0.406 0.818 ± 0.188 0.305 ± 0.117
blood (*10− 1) mass conc. [ng/g] 0.441 ± 0.211 10.785 ± 1.137 3.347 ± 1.058 0.571 ± 0.178 0.344 ± 0.042
blood (*106) numb. Conc. (#/g) 1.11 ± 0.15 27.47 ± 5.12 9.04 ± 3.29 1.66 ± 0.56 0.63 ± 0.08
blood (*10− 2) transloc. NP fract. 7.23 ± 2.4 28.41 ± 11.91 9.05 ± 0.38 1.08 ± 0.25 0.39 ± 0.16
carcass (*10− 3) Corr. fast clear. 10.46 ± 3.55 43.42 ± 18.42 37.33 ± 4.83 44.03 ± 4.17 30.91 ± 2.14
carcass (*10− 3) Corr. resid. Blood 10.1 ± 3.54 37.6 ± 18.45 35.45 ± 4.42 43.51 ± 4.23 30.67 ± 2.15
carcass (*10− 3) all corr. 10.1 ± 3.54 37.37 ± 18.27 34.17 ± 4.14 43.39 ± 4.22 30.61 ± 2.15
carcass (*10− 4) fract. Conc. [1/g] 0.49 ± 0.15 1.59 ± 0.83 1.67 ± 0.18 1.81 ± 0.26 1.39 ± 0.12
carcass (*10− 2) mass conc. [ng/g] 5.38 ± 1.04 24.41 ± 11.14 14.94 ± 4.27 14.09 ± 2.25 16.95 ± 4.75
carcass (*106) numb. Conc. (#/g) 1.81 ± 0.36 6.87 ± 2.74 5.87 ± 2 5.9 ± 1.06 4.61 ± 1.49
carcass (*10− 1) transloc. NP fract. 9.26 ± 0.21 7.00 ± 0.57 4.90 ± 0.24 3.03 ± 0.37 2.11 ± 0.07
skeleton (*10− 3) Corr. fast clear. 0.64 ± 0.4 11.7 ± 5.53 20.84 ± 1.34 22.05 ± 3.45 22.95 ± 4.07
skeleton (*10− 3) Corr. resid. Blood 0.61 ± 0.4 11.25 ± 5.54 20.71 ± 1.36 22.01 ± 3.45 22.93 ± 4.07
skeleton (*10− 3) all corr. 0.61 ± 0.4 11.19 ± 5.47 20.21 ± 1.23 20.37 ± 3.51 22.9 ± 4.06
skeleton (*10− 4) fract. Conc. [1/g] 0.23 ± 0.15 3.83 ± 1.99 7.73 ± 0.39 7.64 ± 1.42 7.78 ± 1.07
skeleton (*10− 1) mass conc. [ng/g] 0.25 ± 0.17 5.77 ± 2.53 6.97 ± 2.47 5.81 ± 1.9 9.47 ± 2.58
skeleton (*106) numb. Conc. (#/g) 0.58 ± 0.4 11.25 ± 3.99 18.84 ± 7.67 16.75 ± 5.36 17.62 ± 5.53
skeleton (*10− 1) transloc. NP fract. 0.47 ± 0.24 2.11 ± 0.17 2.92 ± 0.33 1.61 ± 0.3 1.59 ± 0.32
soft tissue (*10− 3) Corr. fast clear. 9.82 ± 3.63 31.72 ± 13 16.49 ± 5.45 21.98 ± 4.14 7.96 ± 5.67
soft tissue (*10− 3) Corr. resid. Blood 9.49 ± 3.63 26.24 ± 13 14.7 ± 5.07 21.48 ± 4.13 7.73 ± 5.69
soft tissue (*10− 3) all corr. 9.49 ± 3.63 26.17 ± 12.94 14.48 ± 4.98 20.61 ± 3.83 7.73 ± 5.69
soft tissue (*10− 5) fract. Conc. [1/g] 3.88 ± 1.37 9.92 ± 5.16 6.16 ± 2.16 8.55 ± 1.5 2.99 ± 2.23
soft tissue (*10− 2) mass conc. [ng/g] 4.29 ± 1.09 15.2 ± 7.03 5.17 ± 1.38 6.03 ± 0.3 3.74 ± 2.88
soft tissue (*106) numb. Conc. (#/g) 0.98 ± 0.25 2.96 ± 1.21 1.38 ± 0.39 1.74 ± 0.09 0.68 ± 0.52
soft tissue (*10− 1) transloc. NP fract. 8.79 ± 0.41 4.89 ± 0.59 2.05 ± 0.57 1.62 ± 0.26 0.53 ± 0.37
2nd organs (*10− 3) Corr. fast clear. 0.53 ± 0.17 9.97 ± 1.65 9.58 ± 1.37 10.79 ± 0.93 3.46 ± 0.43
2nd organs (*10− 3) Corr. resid. Blood 0.44 ± 0.17 8.26 ± 1.59 8.71 ± 1.31 10.59 ± 0.91 3.39 ± 0.42
2nd organs (*10− 3) all corr. 0.44 ± 0.17 8.24 ± 1.58 8.58 ± 1.27 10.25 ± 0.98 3.39 ± 0.42
2nd organs (*10− 4) fract. Conc. [1/g] 0.24 ± 0.09 4.07 ± 0.81 4.39 ± 0.78 5.22 ± 0.50 1.73 ± 0.31
2nd organs (*10− 1) mass conc. [ng/g] 0.269 ± 0.117 6.294 ± 1.972 3.798 ± 0.926 3.656 ± 0.969 2.101 ± 0.617
2nd organs (*106) numb. Conc. (#/g) 0.62 ± 0.27 12.65 ± 4.67 10.22 ± 2.9 10.58 ± 2.88 3.87 ± 1.15
2nd organs (*10− 1) transloc. NP fract. 0.42 ± 0.15 1.68 ± 0.35 1.23 ± 0.01 0.834 ± 0.08 0.23 ± 0.02
skin (*10−3) Corr. fast clear. 1.38 ± 0.96 14.18 ± 5.83 7.97 ± 1.65 6.52 ± 0.48 3.44 ± 0.18
skin (*10− 3) Corr. resid. Blood 1.29 ± 0.95 12.25 ± 5.78 7.32 ± 1.62 6.35 ± 0.44 3.35 ± 0.17
skin (*10− 3) all corr. 1.29 ± 0.95 12.24 ± 5.77 7.26 ± 1.6 6.24 ± 0.46 3.35 ± 0.17
skin (*10−5) fract. Conc. [1/g] 2.57 ± 1.78 22.67 ± 10.78 14.8 ± 3.6 13.32 ± 1.8 6.22 ± 0.57
skin (*10−2) mass conc. [ng/g] 2.76 ± 1.69 34.83 ± 15.1 12.51 ± 2.62 9.11 ± 1.05 7.57 ± 2.01
skin (*106) numb. Conc. (#/g) 0.63 ± 0.39 8.59 ± 3.44 3.36 ± 0.86 2.63 ± 0.31 1.4 ± 0.39
skin (*1E-1) transloc. NP fract. 1.21 ± 0.8 2.32 ± 0.62 1.04 ± 0.17 0.49 ± 0.03 0.23 ± 0.02
transloc. (*10− 2) Corr. fast clear. 1.14 ± 0.36 6.44 ± 2.28 8.21 ± 0.72 12.92 ± 0.46 14.6 ± 0.74
transloc. (*10− 2) Corr. resid. Blood 1.09 ± 0.36 5.32 ± 2.26 7.68 ± 0.66 12.8 ± 0.45 14.56 ± 0.75
transloc. (*10−2) all corr. 1.09 ± 0.36 5.23 ± 2.19 6.95 ± 0.51 12.7 ± 0.44 14.47 ± 0.74
transloc. (*10−4) fract. Conc. [1/g] 0.5 ± 0.14 2.14 ± 0.96 3.18 ± 0.23 5.69 ± 0.24 6.22 ± 0.47
transloc. (*10− 1) mass conc. [ng/g] 0.006 ± 0.001 0.033 ± 0.014 0.031 ± 0.01 0.04 ± 0.007 0.077 ± 0.022
transloc. (*106) numb. Conc. (#/g) 1.28 ± 0.23 6.52 ± 2.44 8.26 ± 3.04 11.5 ± 2.25 14.2 ± 4.42
  1. n.a. “Correction for residual blood is not applicable”
  2. The data are presented as retained [48V]TiO2-NP fractions of IPLD (applied correction for fast clearance by MCC (corr. Fast clear.)) in each first line of a given organ. In each second line the data were corrected for the [48V]TiO2-NP content in residual blood after exsanguination (corr. Resid. blood) and in each third line the data were further corrected for 48V-activity which can be attributed to free, ionic 48V that was leaching out of the [48V]TiO2-NP (all corr.) following the procedure in the Additional file 1, section 14, and described previously in [29]. After these corrections, the 48V-activity data were converted into [48V]TiO2-NP concentrations per mass of organ or tissue, given either as fractions per gram (g− 1) or as mass concentrations (in ng•g− 1) or as number concentrations (in #•g− 1). In the seventh line of each secondary organ or tissue, the fractions are normalized to the total fraction of those [48V]TiO2-NP which had crossed the ABB up to the given dissection time point (transloc. NP fract., see Eq. (24) of the Additional file 1). Mean ± SEM of n = 4 rats/time point. Note the varying exponents in brackets of the left column are used to ensure an adequate number of valid digits. Graphical displays of data of lines 3, 4 and 7 of each organ or tissue are shown in Figs. 1, 4, 5 and Additional file 1: Figure S6 of Supplementary Material, respectively
  3. The ranking order for all secondary organs, blood, skeleton, and soft tissues at 28d p.e. according to each third line “all corr.” and each seventh line “transloc. NP fract.” is:
  4. skeleton > soft tissue > liver > kidneys > blood > spleen > uterus > brain > heart
  5. However, this ranking order changes for the lines “fract. Conc.” for “mass conc.” and “numb. Conc.” per mass of organ or tissue to:
  6. skeleton > spleen > kidneys > liver > uterus > soft tissue > blood > heart > brain