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Table 1 XRF evaluation of particle sizes and elemental co-localization in skin and lymph node tissues from human donors (corpses)

From: Distribution of nickel and chromium containing particles from tattoo needle wear in humans and its possible impact on allergic reactions

Sample NP size range in nm Co-localizations
Donor 1 skin Fe-Cr-Ni particles (50–1000), Cu (100–700), Ti (100–500), Fe (150–300) yes: Fe-Cr-Ni,
no: some Fe particles w/o Ni
Donor 1 LN Fe-Cr-Ni particles (50–1000), Cu (100–1000), Ti (100–500) yes: Fe-Cr-Ni
no: Cu, Fe, Ti
Donor 2 skin left Fe-Cr-Ni particles (50–500), Cu (100–250), Ti (200–250) yes: Fe-Cr-Ni
no: Cu, Fe, Ti
Donor 2 LN left Fe-Cr-Ni particles (50–4000), Cu (100–250), Ti (200–250), yes: Fe-Cr-Ni
no: Cu, Fe, Ti
Donor 2 skin right Fe-Cr-Ni particles (50–1400), Cu (100–300), Ti (200–300) yes: Fe-Cr-Ni
no: Cu, Fe, Ti
Donor 2 LN right Fe-Cr-Ni particles (50–1500), Cu (100–300), Ti (200–300) yes: Fe-Cr-Ni
no: Cu, Fe, Ti
Donor 3 skin red Fe-Cr-Ni particles (50–350), Cu (100–300), Ti (200–300) yes: Fe-Cr-Ni
no: Cu, Fe, Ti
Donor 3 skin green Fe-Cr-Ni particles (100–650), Cu (100–800), Ti (200–400) yes: Fe-Cr-Ni
no: Cu, Fe, Ti
Donor 3 LN Fe-Cr-Ni particles (50–500), Cu (100–300), Ti (200–300) yes: Fe-Cr-Ni
no: Cu, Fe, Ti
Allergy biopsy Fe-Cr-Ni particles (50–300), Fe (300–450), Cu (100–1400), Ti (200–300) yes: Fe-Cr-Ni
no: Cu, Fe, Ti
  1. Abbreviations: LN lymph node, NP nanoparticle, Fe iron, Cr chromium, Ni nickel, Ti titanium, Cu copper