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Table 4 The main nanotoxicological advantages and disadvantages of multi-cellular primary 3D liver MT in the assessment of the tissue as a potential in vivo surrogate

From: Assessment of nanomaterial-induced hepatotoxicity using a 3D human primary multi-cellular microtissue exposed repeatedly over 21 days - the suitability of the in vitro system as an in vivo surrogate

AdvantagesDisadvantages
Human tissueCost of plates can be potentially prohibitive to academia
Primary cellsToxicological assessment beyond 2 weeks might not be ideal in a nano context
Incorporation of numerous liver cell populations - hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and endothelial cellsThere is no physiological structure to the tissue - cells aggregate randomly
High metabolic activity 
In vitro model which allows for repeated long term exposure of xenobiotics 
Little variability between MT in wells and plates 
Scaffold-free with 100% endogenous extracellular matrix