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Table 3 Summary of the in vitro (A) and in vivo (B) responses to TiO2 exposure

From: Agglomeration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles increases toxicological responses in vitro and in vivo

(A)
In vitro responses to TiO2 exposure
Biological endpointHBECaco2THP-1
17 nm117 nm17 nm117 nm17 nm117 nm
Cell metabolic activityNoNoNoNoNoNo
Cell viabilityNoNoNoNoNoNo
DNA damageYesYesYesYesYesYes
GSHYesYesYesNoYesNo
TEERYesYesNoYesn/an/a
IL-8NoNoNoNoYesNo
IL-6YesNoNoNoNoNo
TNF-αNoNoNoNoYesNo
IL-1βNoYesNoNoYesNo
(B)
In vivo responses to TiO2 exposure  
Biological endpointAspirationGavage  
17 nm117 nm17 nm117 nm  
BAL cell numberNoNon/an/a  
BALF LDHNoYesn/an/a  
BALF proteinsNoNon/an/a  
BAL macrophagesNoNon/an/a  
BAL neutrophilsNoNon/an/a  
BAL lymphocytesYesYesn/an/a  
Blood lymphocytesNoNoNoNo  
Blood monocytesNoNoNoNo  
Blood granulocytesNoNoNoNo  
Lung TiYesYesn/an/a  
Blood TiNoNoNoNo  
BAL DNA damageNoNon/an/a  
Blood DNA damagen/an/aYesYes  
GSH lungNoNon/an/a  
GSH livern/an/aNoNo  
  1. “Yes” indicates p < 0.05 (One-way ANOVA) and a significant difference compared to control; “No” indicates p > 0.05; n/a-not available