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Table 1 Studies using animal models to determine the impact of NPs on the gut microbiota

From: Impacts of foodborne inorganic nanoparticles on the gut microbiota-immune axis: potential consequences for host health

  Ag-NP TiO2-NP SiO2-NP ZnO-NP
Duration (days) ≤14 ≥28 7 ≥28 7 ≤14 ≥28
Actinobacteria     [104]    
Bifidobacterium (g)   [105]      
Corynebacterium (g) [106]       
Rhodococcus (g)     [104]    
Bacteroidetes [107] [105] or [108] [107] [104] [107] [109] [110]
Bacteroidaceae (f)   [108]      [110]
Bacteroides (g)   [105] or [108] [107]   [107]   [110]
Bacteroides uniformis [106]       
Odoribacteraceae (f)   [108]      
Prevotellaceae (f)       [109]  
Prevotella (g) [107]    [104] [107] [109]  
Rikenellaceae (f)   [108]      [110]
Alistipes (g) [107]     [107]   [110]
S24–7 (f)   [108]     [109]  
Barnesiella (g)     [104]    
Firmicutes [107] [105] or [108]   [104] [107] colon, ileum [109] [110]
Bacillaceae (f)       [109]  
Bacillus (g)       [109]  
Christensenellaceae (f) [106]       
Erysipelotrichaceae (f)     [104]    
Turicibacter (g)     [104]    [111]
Lachnospiraceae (f) [107] [108]    [107]   
Blautia (g)   [108]      
Coprococcus (g)   [108]      
Coprococcus eutatus [106]       
Lactobacillaceae (f)   [108]     colon, ileum [109] [110, 111]
Lactobacillus (g) [107] [105] or [108]   [104] [107] colon, ileum [109] [110, 111]
Peptococcaceae (f) [106]       
Ruminococcaceae (f)      [107]   
Oscillospira (g) [106]      [109]  
Streptococcaceae (f)       [109]  
Streptococcus (g)       [109]  
Clostridium (g) [106]       [111]
Dehalobacterium (g) [106]       
Oscillibacter (g)      [107]   
SMB53 (g)        [111]
Proteobacteria     [104] [107] [109] [111]
Enterobacteriaceae (f)   [105]      
Escherichia/Shigella (g)     [104]    
Halomonadaceae (f)       [109]  
Halomonas (g)       [109]  
Aggregatibacter pneumotropica [106]       
  1.  Studies using NPs at human relevant doses