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Table 3 In vitro studies on immunological properties of NPs

From: Impacts of foodborne inorganic nanoparticles on the gut microbiota-immune axis: potential consequences for host health

NPs cell response cell frequence/activity Potential effect
TiO2 (6-48 h) oxidative stress (ROS) [121,122,123,124,125] DC, μɸ, lymphocytes [121, 122, 126] Innate inflammatory response [122, 126,127,128]
expression of TLR (TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR10) [126, 128] naïve T cells [122] Cytotoxicity and inflammation [122, 123, 125, 129]
pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL1-β) [121,122,123, 127, 130,131,132] mature DC [122, 131, 132] Adjuvant [121, 130,131,132]
chemokines secretion (IL-8 and CXCL1) activity (IL-8) [122, 133] mast cell activation [134] Allergic response [134, 135]
co-stimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) [122, 123, 131, 132] neutrophil and μɸ mobility [133] Tissue damage [124, 133]
MPO, MMP-9 and NET [124, 136] neutrophil activity [124, 136] NETosis: inflammation, necrosis and apoptosis [124]
β-hexosaminidase release [134]   
inflammasome activation [123]   
activation of NFkB pathway [128, 131]   
SiO2 (6-48 h) apoptose [123, 125, 137, 138] DC and lymphocytes [123, 137, 138] Imbalance of immune response [125, 126, 137,138,139,140]
pro inflammatory cytokines (IL1-β, IL-2, TNF-α) [121, 123, 126, 138, 139, 141] DC maturation [123, 139] Immunogenic or adjuvant potential [121, 123, 126, 140, 141]
CD80, CD86 and MHCII [123, 138, 139] M1 μɸ polarization [126, 140] Inflammation [121, 123, 125, 126, 137,138,139,140,141]
TLR9 expression [126] neutrophil activity [142] Susceptibility IBD [123, 126, 140], autoimmune diseases [139, 140]
oxidative stress (ROS) [125] cross-presentation [141] NETosis: inflammation, necrosis and apoptosis [142]
inflammasome activation [123]   Cytotoxic effect [121, 123, 125, 137, 138, 140]
NFkB activation [138]   Susceptibility to infection [126]
DNA release – NET [142]   Allergic response [135]
ZnO (6-48 h) pro inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-ɣ) [125, 130, 143, 144] DC activity [130, 145] Cytotoxicity and inflammation [125, 129, 130, 134, 143, 146]
chemokines secretion (IL-8, CXCL9) [130, 144] Lymphocytes [146] Imbalance of immune response [125, 129, 130, 143, 144]
oxidative stress (ROS) [125, 145] neutrophil functions [136] Chronic pathologies [143]
induces neo-synthesis of polypeptides [144] mast cell activation [134] Allergenic response [134, 135]
or apoptose [125, 129, 130, 144] eosinophils [144] Protective effect [134, 144]
DNA damage [125, 129, 146]   Genomic instability [146]
β-hexosaminidase and histamine release [134]   Cell cycle imbalanced [125]
Ag (6-48 h) oxidative stress (ROS) [147,148,149] μɸ, lymphocyte [147,148,149] Apoptosis and cytotoxicity [147,148,149]
DNA damage [148] mast cell activation [135, 150, 151] Inflammation/imbalance of immune response [147,148,149]
pro inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α) [147, 149]   Allergic response [135, 150, 151]
inflammasome activation [147]   
β-hexosaminidase release [135, 150, 151]   
  1. CD Cluster of differentiation, CXCL1 chemokine ligand 1, DC dendritic cell, IBD Inflammatory bowel disease, Ig immunoglobulin, IL interleukin, μɸ macrophage, MHCII major histocompatibility complex II, MMP-9 matrix metalloproteinase 9, MPO myeloperoxidase, NET Neutrophil extracellular trap, NFkB nuclear factor-kappa B, ROS reactive oxygen species, TLR Toll-like receptor