Skip to main content

Table 4 In vivo studies on immunological properties of NPs

From: Impacts of foodborne inorganic nanoparticles on the gut microbiota-immune axis: potential consequences for host health

NPs Time Cell response Cell frequency/activity Dose range Potential effect Ref
TiO2 1 -14 d IFN-ɣ and IL-17 in spleen Th17 and Th1 in spleen 10 mg/kg bw/d inflammation [116]
DC frequency in PP imbalance immune response
Treg and T helper cells in PP immunossuppression
inflammatory cytokines in ileum
(IL-12, IL-4, IL-23, TNF-α, IFN-γ)
T cells CD4+ in small intestin 100 mg/kg bw/d inflammation [161]
   5 g/kg bw (single oral gavage) no toxic effects [165]
> 28 d TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-8 in colon Treg and T helper cells in PP 10 mg/kg bw/d risk of preneoplasic lesions in colon [116]
IL-6, TNF-α, IL1-β in ovary
(expression and production)
white cells and lymphocytes in blood 2.5; 5; 10 mg/kg bw/d inflammation and follicule atresia [166]
fertility reduction
glucose in blood of young rats mast cells activation in stomach 10, 50, 200 mg/kg bw/d alteration of gastrointestinal functions [167]
Heart, Liver and Kidney injuries
SiO2 7 -14 d inflammatory cytokines in blood
(IL1-β, TNF-α, IL-12p70, IL-6 and IFN-ɣ)
Natural Killer acitivity in spleen 750 mg/kg bw/d immunossuppression [168]
T cells and B cells proliferation in spleen dysregulation of immune response
Lymphocytes population in blood  
IgG and IgE in blood splenocyte proliferation 0.1; 1; 10 mg/mouse/d imbalance immune response (dose dependent) [162]
inflammatory cytokines in spleen
(INF-ɣ, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-17)
risk of food allergy development
≥ 28 d   slight lymphocytes in blood 2.5 mg/mouse/d no effect [169]
Ag 7-14 d TGF-β in blood B and Natural Killer cells in blood
T CD8+ population in blood
1 mg/kg bw/d imbalance immune response [170]
IgG in blood,
TGF-β and IFN-ɣ in spleen
splenocyte proliferation 0.01; 0.1; 1; 10 mg/kg bw/d imbalance immune response [163]
≥ 28 d inflammatory cytokines in blood
(IL1-β, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and TGF-β)
T CD8+ population in blood 0.25; 0.50; 1 mg/kg bw/d inflammation [170]
IgE in blood B cell in blood risk of food allergy development
gene expression in ileum
(MUC3, TLR2, TLR4, FOXP3, IL-10, TGF-β)
  9 mg/kg bw/d immunossuppression [105]
    sexual dimorphism response
  1. The relevant doses for humans are indicated in bold. DC dendritic cell, FOXP3 forkhead box P3, GPR43 G-protein coupled receptor 43, IFN-γ interferon-gamma, Ig immunoglobulin, IL interleukin, MUC3 mucin 3, NOD2 nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2, TGF-β transforming growth factor beta, Th T helper, TLR Toll-like receptor, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor alpha, Treg regulatory T-cell