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Table 1 Review of reported effects on the barrier function, such as proliferation, differentiation, and PM penetration in varying skin models upon exposure to PM

From: Impact of airborne particulate matter on skin: a systematic review from epidemiology to in vitro studies

Model PM type Dose and application Exposure time Main findings Ref.
Ex vivo human skin SRM® 1649b 2 mg/cm2, topical 24 h - Pyknotic nuclei.
- Decreased collagen-1 protein expression.
[119]
Pig SRM® 1648a and 1649b 100 μg/m2, topical 5 d - Decreased E-cadherin, cytokeratin, and filaggrin protein expression. [120]
Mice, BALB/c with disrupted barrier PM ≤1 μm from Seoul, Korea 8 μg/cm2, topical 6 h and 2 w repetitive exposures, 10 times total - Healthy barrier: PM remained in follicles.
- Disrupted barrier: penetration of PM in SS.
- Repeated exposure: dermal penetration of PM.
[121]
Mice, BALB/c SRM® 1649b 100 μg/m2, topical 24 h repetitive exposures, 5 d total - Decreased filaggrin protein expression. [122]
Mice, HR-1 SRM® 1650b 100 μg/mL, topical 7 d - PM internalization. [123]
SRM® 1650b 100 μg/mL, topical 7 d - Increased keratin 10 and PCNA protein expression. [124]
HSE SRM® 2975 200 μg/mL, systemic 2 d repetitive exposures, 6 d total - Decreased keratin 16, keratin 17, and Ki67 protein expression. [125]
ERM-CZ120 200 μg/mL, systemic 48 h - Altered morphology of epidermis. [126]
HEE Diesel PM or vapor 0.05% (v/v), systemic 20 d - Decreased protein expression of cornifin A, suprabasin, and antileukoproteinase. [127]
CAPs, PM2.5 0.5 and 2.0 μg/cm2, topical 24 and 48 h - PM penetration in SC after 24 h.
- PM penetration in deeper layers after 48 h.
- No alterations in morphology.
[128]
CRM no. 28 25 mg, topical 6 h - Claudin 4 gene expression is upregulated.
- No changes in mRNA expression of filaggrin, loricrin, involucrin, transglutaminase 1, keratin 1, keratin 10, keratin 5, and keratin 14.
[129]
SRM® 1648a 200 ppm, systemic 96 h - Altered morphology.
- Decreased PCNA and filaggrin protein expression.
[130]
SRM® 1648a 2.2, 8.9, and 17.9 μg/cm2, topical 24 and 48 h - Decreased cytokeratin 10, involucrin, and loricrin protein expression.
- Increased barrier permeability for 17.9 μg/cm2.
- Increased protein expression of aquaporin 3.
[131]
PM2.5 from Seoul, Korea 50 μg/mL, topical 24 h - Decreased keratin-10, claudin-1, desmocollin-1, and IFN-γ protein expression.
- Increased S100A7 and S100A8 protein expression.
[132]
PM0.3–2.5 from Benin, West-Africa 30 μg/cm2, topical 24 h - Decreased loricrin protein expression. [133]
PM2.5 from Xi’an, China 50 μg/mL, systemic 24 h repetitive exposures, 2, 4, or 6 d total - Increased cholesterol levels.
- Reduced squalene levels.
[134]
NHDF SRM®2787 30 μg/cm2, systemic 24 h - PM internalization into autolysosomes. [135]
ERM-CZ100 200 μg/mL, systemic 24 h - Increased elastase and collagenase activity.
- Increased procollagen protein expression.
[136]
The pre-conditioned medium of HaCaT treated with CRM no. 28 125 μg/mL, systemic 30 m, 48 h post-incubation - Increased elastase and collagenase activity. [137]
NHEK PM2.5 from Xi’an, China 50 μg/mL, systemic 24 h - Top upregulated genes of transcriptomics analysis are S100A8, S100A9, keratin 6B, keratin 19, serpin B3, and mostly the genes are involved in cholesterol metabolism. [134]
Diesel PM or vapor 0.05% (v/v), systemic 20 d - Decreased envoplakin, suprabasin, filaggrin, involucrin, sciellin, caspase-14, cornifin-A protein, keratin-1, and keratin-10 protein expression. [127]
Diesel PM 30 and 60 μg/mL, systemic 24 h - PM internalization. [138]
Asian dust storm particles from Seoul, Korea 25 μg/mL, systemic 24 h - Increased caspase 14 and ITGA6 mRNA expression. [139]
PM ≤1 μm from Seoul, Korea 40 μg/cm2, systemic 24 h - PM internalization. [121]
PM2.5 from Seoul, Korea 50 μg/mL, systemic 2 or 4 d - Decreased number and length of cilia.
- Increased SPRR3 protein expression.
- Decreased keratin 1, keratin 10, and IFT88 mRNA expression.
[140]
SRM®2786 1 mg/mL, systemic 6 h - RNA-Seq analysis: Upregulation of keratin-associated protein 2–3, keratin 13, keratin 34, and claudin 4. Downregulation of growth differentiation factor 15. [141]
PM2.5 from Seoul, Korea 25 μg/mL, systemic 24 h - Top upregulated genes from transcriptomics analysis are SPRR family members and other cornified envelope-related genes, transglutaminase 3, involucrin, filaggrin, keratin 10, keratin 15, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, and S10012. [132]
HaCaT CRM no. 28 125 μg/mL, systemic 30 m, 24 h post-incubation - Increased elastase and collagenase activity. [137]
SRM® 1649b 50 μg/cm2, systemic 24 h - Decreased aquaporin-3 protein expression. [142]
SRM® 1649b 50 μg/cm2, systemic 24 h - Decreased filaggrin, repetin, involucrin, and loricrin protein expression after 24 h. [143]
PM2.5 from Shanghai, China 10–100 μg/mL, systemic 24 h - Increased involucrin, repetin, and filaggrin (highest dose) protein expression.
- No changes in loricrin protein expression.
[144]
SRM® 1649b 25 and 50 μg/cm2, systemic 4 and 24 h - Decreased filaggrin protein expression. [122]
SRM® 1650b 50 μg/mL, systemic 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h - PM internalization. [123]
SRM® 2975 100 and 200 μg/mL, systemic 24 h - No changes in loricrin protein expression.
- Increased involucrin protein expression.
- Decreased keratin 16, keratin 17, and Ki67 protein expression.
- Decreased BrdU incorporation.
[125]
CAPs, PM2.5 5–25 μg/mL, systemic 1, 3, 6, and 24 h - PM internalization. [145]
  1. Abbreviations: w, week; d, day; h, hour; m, minute; HSE, human skin equivalent; HEE, human epidermal equivalent; NHEK, normal human epidermal keratinocyte; SRM, standard reference material; PM, particulate matter; CAP, concentrated ambient particles; SS, stratum spinosum; ppm, parts per million; CRM, certified reference material; BrdU, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine