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Table 4 Basic characteristics of the human study included in the present systematic review investigating the maternal-fetal transfer of ambient (ultra)fine particles

From: Translocation of (ultra)fine particles and nanoparticles across the placenta; a systematic review on the evidence of in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo studies

Ref Sample size Exposure Detection technique Main findings
Particle Route Dose Quantitative Qualitative
[1] 20 BC particles Real-life exposure 0.6–2.4 μg/m3 a Two-photon fs pulsed laser microscopy TEM Ambient BC particles found in all screened placentas and positively associated with the mother’s residential BC exposure during pregnancy.
[93] 100 Metallic NPs Real-life exposure n.d. ICP-OES SEM/EDX High prevalence of essential trace elements Cu, Fe, and Zn in the nano/ion fraction observed in amniotic fluid of pregnant women. In contrast, low concentrations and low prevalence of other elements. No conclusions on transplacental NP transfer.
  1. Abbreviations - BC black carbon, Cu copper, Fe iron, fs femtosecond, ICP-OES inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, m3 cubic meter, μm micrometer, n.d. not defined, NPs nanoparticles, SEM/EDX scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, TEM transmission electron microscopy
  2. apredominantly inhaled