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Table 3 Changes in blood chemistry, cellular, HRV, inflammatory, lung function, and repolarization measures (95%CI): 1 h after exposure (Post) and approximately 20 h after exposure (Follow-up). Mean change is expressed per 37.8 μg/m3 of PM2.5, which corresponds to average concentrated PM2.5 exposure across subjects

From: Low levels of fine particulate matter increase vascular damage and reduce pulmonary function in young healthy adults

Group Endpoint Post Follow-up
Blood Chemistry Cholesterol (mg/dL) 1.4 (− 3.0, 5.9) 0.6 (− 3.1, 4.4)
HDL (mg/dL) − 0.4 (− 5.3, 4.6) − 1.4 (− 6.3, 3.6)
LDL (mg/dL) 5.5 (− 3.7, 14.6) 4.3 (− 1.9, 10.8)
Triglycerides (mg/dL) − 14.3 (− 40.5, 13.3) − 17.3 (− 41.2, 6.6)
VLDL (mg/dL) − 12.9 (− 38.4, 13.9) −16.8 (− 41.2, 7.6)
D-Dimer (ng/mL) 10.7 (− 12.1, 33) − 4.4 (− 21.5, 12.6)
LDH (IU/L) − 6.9 (− 13.3, − 0.5) − 11.2 (− 17.4, − 5.0)
PAI-1 (ng/mL) −1.2 (− 16.2, 13.6) 7.0 (− 15.9, 29.3)
Plasminogen (%) 2.2 (− 5.1, 9.6) 1.7 (− 6.9, 10.4)
Protein (g/dL) − 0.2 (− 3.2, 2.8) 0.1 (− 1.9, 2.2)
tPA (ng/mL) 3.9 (− 3.8, 11.4) − 3.5 (− 13.1, 5.8)
vWF (%) − 6.9 (− 23.0, 9.2) 6.0 (− 7.5, 19.5)
Cellular Basophils (%) − 3.6 (− 51.2, 44.0) − 0.4 (− 38.1, 40.4)
Eosinophils (103 cells/uL) − 38.4 (− 146.2, 70.8) − 4.5 (− 19.6, 11.5)
Eosinophils (%) 1.2 (− 15.8, 18.3) 2.1 (− 16.9, 21.7)
Lymphocytes (%) 2.1 (− 3.5, 7.7) 6.3 (− 0.9, 14.2)
Monocytes (103 cells/uL) − 2.2 (− 13.8, 9.1) − 2.6 (− 14.2, 8.3)
Monocytes (%) 0.8 (− 11.1, 12.3) 2.9 (− 8.1, 13.6)
Neutrophils (%) −6.5 (− 13.9, 0.8) −5.7 (− 11.1, − 0.6)
Platelets (103 cells/uL) − 0.8 (− 6.3, 4.8) − 0.5 (− 4.7, 3.8)
RBC (103 cells/uL) − 0.5 (− 2.5, 1.4) − 1.6 (− 3.2, 0.0)
WBC (103 cells/uL) 3.3 (− 11.8, 18.5) −4.8 (− 14.1, 4.5)
HRV HF/LF 12.7 (− 17.4, 42.7) 17.0 (− 31.3, 65.2)
HFn 8.6 (− 6.4, 23.7) 13.0 (− 12.8, 38.7)
LFn −0.7 (− 19.1, 16.6) − 13.3 (− 31.3, 4.8)
pNN50 (# of NN intervals) 2.0 (− 33.8, 38.0) 154.5 (− 178.2, 487.2)
SDNN (ms) −6.6 (− 25.2, 12.0) 10.6 (− 21.8, 43.0)
Inflammatory CRP (ng/mL) 9.1 (1.0, 17.2) 22.8 (−2.9, 48.7)
IL-1b (pg/mL) −3.0 (− 14.7, 8.7) 1.9 (−8.7, 13.1)
IL-6 (pg/mL) 12.7 (−9, 34.4) −3.0 (− 17.3, 11.5)
IL-8 (pg/mL) −1.5 (−9.9, 7.0) 0.8 (− 13.2, 14.8)
sICAM (ng/mL) 10.7 (4., 17.5) 6.5 (−1.7, 14.7)
SAA (ng/mL) 8.7 (1.3, 16.1) 34.6 (13.1, 56.1)
sVCAM (ng/mL) 6.6 (1.3, 12.0) 2.5 (−3.9, 8.9)
TNF-a (pg/mL) −1.4 (−6.1, 3.3) 0.2 (−7.1, 7.5)
Lung function FEF 25–75% −1.6 (−4.3, 1.1) 0.6 (−2.4, 3.5)
FEV1 −0.8 (−1.7, 0.0) 0.6 (− 0.8, 1.8)
FEV1/FVC −1.2 (− 2.4, − 0.1) 0.0 (− 1.2, 1.2)
FVC 0.2 (− 0.8, 1.1) 0.9 (− 0.6, 2.4)
PEF − 1.8 (−3.7, 0.1) − 1.0 (− 3.6, 1.6)
Repolarization Max HR (beats per min) −3.3 (−9.3, 2.6) 1.9 (−6.5, 10.2)
Mean HR (beats per min) − 1.9 (−8.6, 4.5) −0.4 (−6.2, 5.5)
Min HR (beats per min) −0.9 (−9.3, 7.6) −1.7 (− 9.7, 6.2)
P-wave (ms) 10.5 (4.0, 17.1) −5.7 (− 20, 8.7)
QRS complex (ms) 2.2 (−1.6, 6.0) −4.6 (−9.9, 0.7)
QT interval (ms) −0.1 (−1.7, 1.5) 0.4 (−2.2, 3.1)
QTc interval (ms) −0.3 (−1.1, 0.6) 0.1 (−1.6, 1.7)
T-wave (ms) −0.9 (−9.7, 7.9) −6.1 (−13.2, 1.2)