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Table 2 Hydrodynamic diameter, zeta potential, and two-dimensional sizing of CNT/F agglomerates dispersed in physiologic dosing media

From: Physicochemical characterization and genotoxicity of the broad class of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers used or produced in U.S. facilities

  MW #1 MW #2
Small Agglomerates
MW #2
Large Agglomerates
MW #3 MW #4 MW #5 MW #6 MW #7 CNF #1 CNF #2
Spherical Agglomerates
 % Spherical Agglomerated 87 0 0 83 1 4 0 0 0 0
 Spherical Agglomerate Mean Diameter
μm ± SE
1.28 ± 0.16 N/A N/A 0.81 ± 0.10 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Spherical Agglomerate Diameter Geometric Mean
μm (GSD)
0.96 (2.01) N/A N/A 0.66 (1.84) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Bundled Agglomerates
 % Bundle Agglomerates/Singlets 13 N/A N/A 17 99 96 100 100 100 100
 Bundle Agglomerate Mean Length
μm ± SE
1.90 ± 0.37 3.80 ± 0.38 49.55 ± 3.58 1.11 ± 0.25 3.77 ± 0.35 6.27 ± 0.44 9.47 ± 1.26 11.32 ± 1.08 9.30 ± 1.07 2.96 ± 0.36
 Bundle Agglomerate Geometric Mean Length
μm (GSD)
1.66 (1.71) 3.09 (1.82) 47.94 (1.31) 0.72 (2.98) 2.92 (2.05) 5.17 (1.94) 5.90 (2.57) 7.91 (2.49) 6.18 (2.49) 2.11 (2.25)
 Bundle Agglomerate Mean Diameter
μm ± SE
0.38 ± 0.12 0.03 ± 0.00 9.50 ± 2.24 0.03 ± 0.00 0.10 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01 0.21 ± 0.01 0.12 ± 0.01
 Bundle Agglomerate Diameter Geometric Mean
μm (GSD)
0.18 (4.20) 0.03 (1.60) 6.99 (2.24) 0.03 (1.56) 0.08 (1.89) 0.11 (1.07) 0.07 (2.09) 0.09 (1.64) 0.19 (1.42) 0.11 (1.63)
Hydrodynamic
Diameter (nm)
660 ± 19 771 ± 33 608 ± 30 478 ± 24 504 ± 15 714 ± 24 652 ± 26 615 ± 19 664 ± 18
Zeta Potential (pH 7.3) −10.4 ± 0.4 −12.1 ± 0.6 −11.1 ± 0.06 −12.0 ± 0.4 −13.5 ± 0.8 −11.8 ± 0.6 −13.2 ± 0.5 −11.1 ± 0.8 −11.3 ± 0.5